Oospenia Spring Commemorates Doukhobor Pioneers

For Immediate Release – August 23, 2006

A spring near Blaine Lake, Saskatchewan has been officially named to commemorate the Doukhobor settlers of the area. Oospenia Spring, the name proposed by Doukhobor researcher and writer Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, was recently approved by the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board.

Oospenia Spring is located on the NW 1/4 of 31-43-5-W3 on the scenic west bank of the North Saskatchewan River, eighteen kilometres south-east of Blaine Lake. It issues from the top of the river bank to form a small, crystal clear pool. The pool overflows down the bank to the flats, and from the flats, into the river. Flowing year-round, it is an excellent source of clean, cool, fresh and abundant water.

“Place names define our landscape and help record our history,“ said Kalmakoff, a leading authority on Doukhobor geographic names. “In this regard, the naming of the spring provides official recognition of the Doukhobors of Oospenia who made a significant contribution to the history and development of the area in which it is located.”

View of Oospenia Spring. Photo courtesy Donna Choppe.

The village of Oospenia was established near the spring in 1899 by Doukhobors from Kars, Russia who fled to Canada to escape persecution for their pacifist beliefs. For five years, the Russian-speaking settlers lived in dug-outs on the river bank before constructing a log village on level ground nearby. Following the motto of ‘Toil and Peaceful Life’, they lived, prayed and worked together, transforming the prairie wilderness into productive farmland. By 1913, Oospenia was abandoned as villagers relocated to individual homesteads or to communal settlements in British Columbia.

“The Doukhobors of Oospenia had a direct and meaningful association with the spring,” said Kalmakoff. “Indeed, the spring was the primary reason they chose the location for their village site. Throughout the history of their settlement, the Oospenia Doukhobors utilized the spring as a drinking water source and as a water source for their livestock and farming operations. In many ways, it helped define the village settlement.”

The official name comes after two and a half years of consultations by Kalmakoff to gather feedback on the suitability and acceptance of the name from persons familiar with the area. The response was overwhelmingly positive. The owner of the land on which the spring is located, Brenda Cheveldayoff, submitted a letter of support. The Blaine Lake Doukhobor Society also endorsed the naming project. As well, the Rural Municipality of Blaine Lake No. 434 passed a resolution in favour of the name.

The consultations were followed by a formal proposal to the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board, the Provincial body responsible for place names. The Board reviewed and investigated the name proposal in consultation with government departments and agencies. In determining the suitability of the name, the Board was guided by the Geographic Naming Policies, a stringent set of principles governing the naming of geographic features. Its decision – which was firmly in favour of the name Oospenia Spring – was then recommended to the Minister Responsible for the Board, the Hon. Eric Cline, Q.C. who approved the decision.

Now that the name is official, the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board will supply the information to government ministries and agencies, cartographers, publishers and other persons engaged in the preparation of maps and publications intended for official and public use.

For Kalmakoff, the naming of Oospenia Spring was a personal project. His great-great-grandparents, Grigory and Maria Ivin, were among the original group of Doukhobors who founded the village of Oospenia and used the spring in their daily life.

“Oospenia Spring is not just a name on a map or sign,” said Kalmakoff. “It signifies that the contribution of the Doukhobors of Oospenia was substantial to the area and will assure the continued remembrance of them and their deeds by generations that follow.”

For additional information about Oospenia Spring, see the article Doukhobor Dugout House Unveils Monument Commemorating Oospenia Spring by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

Good Spirit Lake Annex – Historical Tour

On Saturday, June 20, 2007, the National Heritage Doukhobor Village hosted a guided motor coach tour of Doukhobor historical sites, landmarks and points of interest in the Good Spirit Lake and Buchanan areas of Saskatchewan.

Approximately sixty people took part in the excursion, which travelled through the heart of “Good Spirit Country”, visiting some of the original Doukhobor village and related sites, exploring surviving buildings and structures, and learning about the Doukhobors who inhabited them, their surroundings, and the events that took place within them.

“One of the primary objectives of the tour was to emphasize the historical significance of the Doukhobor contribution to the development and growth of the area”, said Keith Tarasoff, tour organizer and chairman of the National Heritage Doukhobor Village.

Tour participants exploring the Krukoff Homestead near Good Spirit Lake.

In 1899, over 1,000 Doukhobors from Elizavetpol and Kars, Russia settled in the area on 168,930 acres of homestead land reserved by the Dominion Government for their use. The reserve was known as the “Good Spirit Lake Annex”. There, they cleared the forest, broke the virgin prairie, planted grain fields, kept livestock herds and established eight communal villages as well as gristmills, blacksmith shops, granaries and barns. Living, praying and working under the motto of “Toil and Peaceful Life”, they transformed the prairie wilderness into productive farmland. By 1918, the Annex reserve was closed as Doukhobors relocated to communal settlements in British Columbia or to individual homesteads in the area. Those who remained established successful independent farming operations and thriving businesses.

Original 1899-era barn from Blagosklonnoe Village at the Krukoff Homestead.

The tour of the Good Spirit Lake Annex departed from the Doukhobor Prayer Home in Canora at 1:00 p.m. and commenced with a visit to the Krukoff Homestead, established on the site of Blagosklonnoye Village and containing an original village barn as well as a house constructed from bricks from the original village prayer home. The tour then passed the Blagosklonnoye Cemetery site, along with the Staro-Goreloye Village and Cemetery sites, before visiting at the Hancheroff House, an original village home relocated from Staro-Goreloye to its present site in the early 1900’s. A brief stop was made at Devil’s Lake School, a main Doukhobor school in the area during the first half of the twentieth century. The tour then passed through the Kalmakovka Village and Cemetery sites, the Utesheniye Village and Cemetery sites, and the Sukovaeff House, an original village home relocated from Utesheniye to its present site in the early 1900’s. A group moleniye service and commemoration was held at Novo Troitskoye Cemetery, where a major effort is underway to restore the site and preserve the cemetery for the future. The tour then passed through the vicinity of the Novo-Troitskoye Village site and the Moiseyevo Cemetery and Village sites, where at the latter, several original village structures remain.

Tour participants conduct a moleniye service at Novo-Troitskoe Cemetery near Buchanan.

The excursion proceeded to the Village of Buchanan, the main commercial centre in the area and a significant hub of Doukhobor activity throughout much of the twentieth century. A stop was made at Lois Hole Memorial Park, which commemorates the late Lois (nee Verigin) Hole, a former Buchanan resident of Doukhobor ancestry who became a successful market gardener, prominent book publisher and Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta. Afterwards, the tour stopped at the Buchanan Community Hall where participants were treated to refreshments courtesy the Village Council and to an extensive historic photo display courtesy Lorne J. Plaxin.  The tour then resumed, passing the Plaxin & Verigin General Store site and the Buchanan Doukhobor Prayer Home, built in 1916 to serve the needs of the Doukhobors in the surrounding area. A stop was made at the foundations of the Independent Doukhobor Flour Mill and Elevator, which was built in 1916 and operated until the Forties, as well as the foundations of the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood Store and Warehouse which operated in the Twenties and Thirties.

The tour continued west of Buchanan, where it passed the Novo-Goreloye Village and Cemetery sites, the Village of Buchanan Cemetery, the Kirilovka Village and Cemetery sites, and the site of Dernic Siding and Hamlet. On the return leg, the tour visited the Buchanan Historic Monument, located east of Buchanan along Highway No. 5. Constructed of millstones from the villages of Novo-Troitskoye and Utesheniye, it stands as a memorial to the Doukhobor pioneer settlers of the Buchanan area. As a concluding highlight, a group photo was taken in front of the monument. The tour then returned to the point of departure at 6:30 p.m.

Tour group photo at the Buchanan Historic Monument on Highway No. 5 east of Buchanan.

Throughout the five and a half-hour excursion, expert tour guides Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, a Regina-based researcher and writer and Lorne J. Plaxin, a Preeceville-based local historian, provided an informative and entertaining historical narration.  Both have family roots in the Good Spirit Lake Annex area. Tour participants also shared interesting stories and anecdotes about the people and places. These included Fred Krukoff, who spoke about the Blagosklonnoye village site while Margaret Hancheroff described the Hancheroff House from Staro-Goreloye village.  

“A lot of the people who accompanied the tour were amazed at what we were able to show them,” said Jonathan Kalmakoff. “Many presumed that there was nothing left to see, when in fact, there are plenty of existing historic sites, buildings and landmarks that people pass every day without knowing or appreciating their history or purpose. Through the tour, they were able to have an enjoyable visit, and most importantly, learn a little more about their Doukhobor heritage and culture.”

Highway map of Buchanan and Good Spirit Lake, Saskatchewan.

“It was a privilege to take part in the Good Spirit Lake Annex tour,” said Lorne Plaxin. “A profound feeling of belonging was very evident as the tour bus passed each village or cemetery site. Indeed, the recollections and anecdotes shared by many of the tour participants reminded us all of our rich heritage. We can indeed be proud of our ancestors’ accomplishments and legacy.”

For additional information or inquiries about the tour of the Good Spirit Lake Annex and other Doukhobor historic sites in Saskatchewan, contact the National Heritage Doukhobor Village at Box 99, Veregin, Saskatchewan, S0A 4H0. Phone number (306) 542-4441.

Doukhobors Featured at the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences

For Immediate Release – June 3, 2007

The Doukhobors were among the topics featured at the 76th annual Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan from May 26 to June 2, 2007. Speakers included Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, writer, historian and webmaster; and University of Toronto graduate student, Ashleigh Androsoff.

Organized by the Canadian Federation for Humanities and Social Sciences, the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences – formerly known as the “Learned Societies” – is the largest annual multidisciplinary academic gathering in Canada; its multidisciplinary character marks it as unique in the world.

Now in its 76th year, the Congress is an important meeting place for new and established academics and researchers working in such richly diverse areas as anthropology, bibliotherapy, communication and disability studies, language, literature, geography, the history and philosophy of science, international development, political science, social work, theatre research, ethnic and minority studies, women studies and many more.

This year, approximately 5,600 Congress delegates representing over 68 learned societies came to the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon from all over North America, Europe, Africa and Asia to present their research at lectures, panels and workshops, and to debate some of the most important social and cultural questions of the day.

The theme of this year’s Congress was “Bridging Communities: Making public knowledge – Making knowledge public.” With its emphasis on equity issues, minority groups and bridge-building, it provided a rich backdrop for several interesting sessions on the Doukhobors in Canada.

Jonathan J. Kalmakoff presenting at the Congress of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2007.

At the session, “Toponymy” hosted by the Canadian Society for the Study of Names on May 26th, Jonathan J. Kalmakoff presented a paper on “Place Names of Early Doukhobor Settlements in Saskatchewan, 1899-1907”. His paper explored the influence of history, belief, language, orthography and geography on the early place names of the Doukhobors, and examined the mechanisms through which these influences were formulated and manifested.  Click here to view an abstract of his paper.

At another session, “The Immigrant Experience in Canada” hosted by the Canadian Historical Association on May 29th, Ashleigh Androsoff presented a paper entitled “From the Private Sphere to the Public Eye: ‘Redressing’ the Image of Doukhobor-Canadian Women in the Twentieth Century”. Her paper addressed the disparate amount of press attention received by Doukhobor women over the course of the twentieth century in Canada.

Through participation in this exceptional world-level event, we enjoyed the opportunity to share the Doukhobor experience with members of the broader Canadian and international academic community.” said Kalmakoff. “In doing so, we were able to promote a broader dialogue and understanding”.

For additional information or inquiries about the 2007 Congress of Humanities and Social Sciences, past and future Congresses, visit the Canadian Federation for Humanities and Social Sciences web site at: http:/www.fedcan.ca/english/congress/about/.

Blahoslovenie Creek Commemorates Kylemore Doukhobors

A creek near Kylemore, Saskatchewan has been officially named to commemorate the Doukhobor settlers of the area. Blahoslovenie Creek, the name proposed by Doukhobor researcher and writer Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, was recently approved by the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board.

Blahoslovenie Creek is a small, seasonal stream which originates one kilometre west of Kylemore and winds south-eastward along an eight kilometre course before draining into Fishing Lake. Several marshes, wetlands and smaller streams feed the creek. Rain, snowmelt and groundwater contribute to its flow. Eighteen square kilometres of farmland – approximately eighteen hundred hectares – drain into the creek.

The name Blahoslovenie is the Russian term for ‘blessing’. “The name reflects the fertility and abundance of the land surrounding the creek,” said Kalmakoff, a leading authority on Doukhobor geographic names. “It also embodies the spiritual and cultural heritage of the Doukhobor pioneers who settled and developed the creek’s watershed.”

View of Blahoslovenie Creek from Highway No. 5 west of Kylemore.

In 1917-1918, Doukhobors belonging to the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood (CCUB) purchased over four thousand five hundred hectares of land in the Kylemore area. There, under the motto of ‘Toil and Peaceful Life’, they cleared the forest, broke the land and established fourteen communal villages as well as a central store, warehouse, elevator, prayer home, blacksmith shop, granaries and barns. The communal farming enterprise at Kylemore lasted approximately twenty years. Following the collapse of the CCUB in 1937-1939, the land was sold and many of the Doukhobors relocated to British Columbia. Those who remained in the area – approximately ten families – became independent farmers. Many of their descendants still farm the original CCUB landholdings.

“The Doukhobors at Kylemore had a close association with the creek,” said Kalmakoff. “The creek flowed through the heart of the communal settlement. The Doukhobors lived and farmed along its banks and used its waters for domestic and agricultural purposes as well as recreational activities. Many of the Doukhobor pioneers were buried, fittingly, near the source of the creek.”

The official name comes after three years of consultations by Kalmakoff to gather feedback on the suitability and acceptance of the name from persons familiar with the area. The positive response was tremendous. Local Doukhobor residents supported the naming project. The Rural Municipality of Sasman No. 336 passed a resolution in favour of the name. As well, the Fishing Lake First Nation No. 89 passed a resolution endorsing the name.

The consultations were followed by a formal proposal to the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board, the Provincial body responsible for place names. The Board reviewed and investigated the name proposal in consultation with government departments and agencies. In its deliberations, the Board was guided by the Geographic Naming Policies, a rigorous set of principles governing the naming of geographic features. Its decision – which was solidly in favour of the name Blahoslovenie Creek – was then recommended to the Minister Responsible for the Board, the Hon. Eric Cline, Q.C. who approved the decision.

Now that the name is official, the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board will supply the information to government ministries and agencies, cartographers, publishers and other persons engaged in the preparation of maps and publications intended for official and public use.

“The naming of Blahoslovenie Creek signifies that the Doukhobor contribution to the history and development of the Kylemore area was substantial ,” said Kalmakoff. “It will be an important historic reference for Doukhobors and their future generations.”

For additional information or inquiries about Blahoslovenie Creek, email Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

New Designation Recognizes the National Historic Significance of the Doukhobors at Veregin, Saskatchewan

For Immediate Release – December 10, 2006

The Doukhobors at Veregin, Saskatchewan have been recognized for their national historic significance to Canada. The Honourable Rona Ambrose, Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for Parks Canada, has announced their addition to Canada’s family of national historic sites, people and events.

Set amidst rolling farmland in eastern Saskatchewan, the community of Veregin was established in 1904 and retained its central role in Doukhobor society until 1931 when spiritual and administrative headquarters were relocated to British Columbia. Its subsequent decline marked the end of the first phase of Doukhobor settlement. The original Veregin settlement – of which the prayer home, machine shed, grain elevator and foundations of the old store survive – was the administrative, distribution and spiritual centre for the region during the first period of Doukhobor settlement in Canada.

Prayer home and residence of Peter V. Verigin.  Photograph by Lorraine Brecht. 

The group of four original buildings designated as national historic sites embody the founding and establishment of Veregin. The spectacular prayer home reflects the settlement’s importance to the Doukhobors as a religious and cultural centre, as well as the authority and the vision of the leader of the Doukhobors, Peter V. Verigin. Constructed in 1917 as the spiritual meeting place of the community and Verigin’s personal residence, this finely-crafted wooden building with its two-storey wrap-around veranda and elaborate metal work was inspired by 19th-century Doukhobor architectural traditions in Russia. The vast open site surrounding the house accommodated large gatherings drawn from Doukhobor colonies throughout Saskatchewan, who assembled to hear the words of their leader as he addressed them from the second floor balcony. Serving for many years as the social, cultural and spiritual centre of Doukhobor life in Saskatchewan, this building remains highly significant as a major architectural landmark and for its ongoing role as a prayer home and museum of Doukhobor history. Two other original buildings, the machine shed and the grain elevator, are fundamental to understanding the history of the Veregin Doukhobor community. The foundations of the old store offer further insights into the settlement’s early role as an important distribution centre and into the communal economy of the Doukhobors.

The ongoing significance of Veregin to the Doukhobor people is indicated by the fact that it was chosen as the site to celebrate the 60th, 75th and 100th anniversaries of their arrival in Canada. The Doukhobor experience in Canada yields insight into Christian communitarian spirit on the western frontier, and represents a remarkable episode in Canadian immigration history. Nowhere is this experience better revealed than at Veregin.

The designations were made by Minister Ambrose on the recommendation of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC). Parks Canada and the HSMBC will work with the community and the National Heritage Doukhobor Village to plan the future placement of commemorative plaques at locations linked to the important contributions made by the designated places.

“These national historic sites are places of profound importance to Canadians.” said Minister Ambrose in a Parks Canada media release. “They bear witness to this nation’s defining moments and illustrate its human creativity and cultural traditions. Each national historic site tells a chapter of Canada’s history and helps us understand Canada as a whole. It is why I am proud to welcome these new places of historic significance to Canada into the Parks Canada family.”

With the designation of these sites, Canada’s system of national historic sites now includes 925 national historic sites, 598 national historic persons and 375 national historic events. The majority of national historic sites are owned and operated by private individuals, not-for-profit groups and corporations. Parks Canada protects and presents 154 of these special places on behalf of Canadians.

For additional information or inquiries about the designation of the Doukhobor buildings at Veregin, Saskatchewan as national historic sites, contact Parks Canada – National Historic Sites of Canada.

Doukhobor Dugout House Unveils Monument Commemorating Oospenia Spring

For Immediate Release – July 11, 2007

In 1899, a group of Doukhobor immigrants from Russia reached the North Saskatchewan River in what was to become the Blaine Lake district of Saskatchewan. Weary from their thousand miles’ journey, they stopped alongside a cool, abundant spring on the west bank of the river. Finding it an ideal location for settlement, they established a dugout village there which they named Oospenia. In the years that followed, the spring was the lifeblood of the Doukhobor settlement.

Now, one hundred and eight years later, long after the abandonment of the village, the spring is the centrepiece of the Doukhobor Dugout House site, a provincial heritage site with historic buildings, cultural artefacts, live exhibits and guided tours depicting the history of the Oospenia Doukhobors.

Stone monument commemorating Oospenia Spring. Photo by Donna Choppe.

On July 11, 2007, at its season opening ceremony, the Doukhobor Dugout House unveiled a stone monument commemorating the spring. The monument, made of 30’ x 18’ x 6’ native fieldstone, is engraved with the official name of the spring, “Oospenia Spring”, recently designated by the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board.  It will be positioned alongside the spring. 

The Honourable Eric Cline Q.C. (left) and Jonathan J. Kalmakoff (right) unveil the stone monument commemorating Oospenia Spring. Photo by Donna Choppe.

The ceremony, presided over by keynote and motivational speaker Norm Rebin, was attended by over three hundred people. It opened with the Lord’s Prayer recited in Russian by Jeanette Stringer and in English by Brenda Cheveldayoff. On hand to present greetings were a number of dignitaries, including Dr. Margaret Kennedy, Heritage Foundation; Joe Chad, Tourism Saskatchewan; John Reban, Reeve, RM of Blaine Lake No. 434; Don Atchison, Mayor of Saskatoon; Denis Allchurch, MLA Rosthern-Shellbrook; the Honourable Eric Cline Q.C., Minister of Industry and Resources; Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, Doukhobor writer and historian; and the Honourable Lorne Calvert, Premier of Saskatchewan.

The monument was officially unveiled by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, who originally recommended the name “Oospenia Spring” to the Saskatchewan Geographic Names Board, together with the Honourable Eric Cline, Q.C., who approved the name last year as Minister responsible for the Board.

Jonathan J. Kalmakoff addresses the crowd attending the Oospenia Spring monument unveiling. Photo by Donna Choppe. 

Kalmakoff paid tribute to the essential role of the spring in the early settlement history of the Doukhobors. “The Doukhobors of Oospenia had a direct and meaningful association with the spring,” said Kalmakoff. “Indeed, the spring was the primary reason they chose this location for their village. The spring nourished them, providing the settlers with a source of good, clean drinking water and a water source for their livestock and farming operations.”

Minister Cline commended the Doukhobor Dugout House for its preservation of Doukhobor heritage. “The story of the Doukhobors is an important chapter in the history of the Province,” said Minister Cline. “We are making sure that this part of our collective history is not forgotten. I am honoured to help inaugurate the monument commemorating Oospenia Spring and the Doukhobors who lived here.”

Members of the public enjoy a walkabout tour of the site following the ceremony. Photo by Donna Choppe.

The ceremony concluded with a keynote address by Norm Rebin about the “Value of Collective Memory”.  In his speech, Rebin celebrated changing societal attitudes towards the Doukhobors, their historic contribution to the settlement of Canada, and their place in the multicultural mosaic. “Our ancestors would weep,” said Rebin, “if they could see us gathered here today, in the spirit of good will and brotherhood.”  “This is a revelatory place. It shows how far the Doukhobors have come,” said Rebin, referring to the fact that Doukhobors once looked upon the government as oppressors but are now working hand in hand with them to restore the site.

A walkabout tour of the Doukhobor Dugout House site with costumed guides followed, along with a historic plough pulling re-enactment by twelve Doukhobor women belonging to the Saskatoon Doukhobor Society.  Refreshments, including Doukhobor bread and other traditional dishes, were also served.

Lorne Calvert, Premier of Saskatchewan (left) tours the Doukhobor Dugout House

site with Norm Rebin, Master of Ceremonies. Photo by Donna Choppe. 

Premier Calvert, who arrived just after the pulling of the plough, took a walkabout tour of the site before giving a short speech for those in attendance. He spoke of the hard work that goes into preserving a heritage site such as the Dugout House and the importance of such projects. “Without the good people that are doing this, this place would be lost,” said Premier Calvert.

The stone monument placed in the Oospenia Spring. Photo by Donna Choppe.

For information or inquiries about Oospenia Spring and other on-site attractions, including group tours, special events, and hours of operation, contact the Doukhobor Dugout House web site at: http:/www.doukhobordugouthouse.com.

Index to the 1905, 1911 & 1918 Doukhobor Village Census

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

This online index may be used to locate Doukhobors in the special census of Saskatchewan Doukhobor villages taken in 1905, 1911 and 1918. Use it to identify the Department of Interior file number and Library and Archives Canada or British Columbia Archives microfilm number of each village. Then consult the microfilm copies of the original census to find specific Doukhobor entries.

Index  – North Colony South Colony Good Spirit Lake Annex –   Saskatchewan Colony

 

North Colony

Village Dept. of Interior File LAC Microfilm BCA Microfilm
Arkhangelskoye RG15 V1167 F5412475 T-15534 B-14200
Bogomdannoye RG15 V1165 F5404662 T-15532 B-14198
Gromovoye RG15 V1165 F5404654 T-15532 B-14198
Khlebodarnoye RG15 V1165 F5404640 T-15532 B-14197
Lyubomirnoye RG15 V1167 F5412461 T-15534 B-14199
Mikhailovka RG15 V1167 F5412457 T-15534 B-14199
Novo-Kamenka RG15 V1165 F5404676 T-15533 B-14198
Novo-Lebedevo RG15 V1167 F5412465 T-15534 B-14200
Osvobozhdeniye RG15 V1167 F5412455 T-15534 B-14199
Pavlovo RG15 V1167 F5412493 T-15535 B-14200
Perekhodnoye RG15 V1168 F5412973 T-15535 B-14200
Pokrovskoye RG15 V1167 F5412481 T-15534 B-14200
Semeonovo RG15 V1166 F5412449 T-15534 B-14199
Staro-Bogdanovka RG15 V1167 F5412477 T-15534 B-14200
Staro-Lebedevo RG15 V1167 F5412465 T-15534 B-14200
Tikhomirnoye RG15 V1167 F5412435 T-15533 B-14199
RG15 V1167 F5412471 T-15534 B-14200
Troitskoye RG15 V1165 F5404672 T-15533 B-14198
Uspeniye RG15 V1167 F5412453 T-15534 B-14199
Vera RG15 V1165 F5404682 T-15533 B-14198
Vozneseniye RG15 V1166 F5412439 T-15534 B-14199

South Colony  

Village Dept. of Interior File LAC Microfilm BCA Microfilm
Besednoye RG15 V1165 F5404658 T-15532 B-14198
Blagodarnoye RG15 V1165 F5404656 T-15532 B-14198
Blagovishcheniye RG15 V1165 F5404670 T-15533 B-14198
Efremovka RG15 V1165 F5404660 T-15532 B-14198
Kapustino RG15 V1165 F5404644 T-15532 B-14197
Lyubovnoye RG15 V1165 F5404674 T-15533 B-14198
Nadezhda RG15 V1167 F5412459 T-15534 B-14199
Novoye RG15 V1168 F5412497 T-15535 B-14200
Otradnoye RG15 V1167 F5412467 T-15534 B-14200
Petrovo RG15 V1167 F5412491 T-15535 B-14200
Novo-Pokrovka RG15 V1167 F5412483 T-15534 B-14200
Prokuratovo RG15 V1167 F5412483 T-15534 B-14200
Rodionovka RG15 V1163 F5412489 T-15535 B-14200
Slavnoye RG15 V1165 F5404678 T-15533 B-14198
Smirenovka RG15 V1166 F5412431 T-15533 B-14199
Sovetnoye RG15 V1166 F5404688 T-15533 B-14198
Spasskoye RG15 V1166 F5412447 T-15534 B-14199
Staro-Kamenka RG15 V1167 F5412485 T-15534 B-14200
Tambovka RG15 V1166 F5412437 T-15533 B-14199
Terpeniye RG15 V1166 F5412443 T-15534 B-14199
Trudolyubovoye RG15 V1165 F5404680 T-15533 B-14198
Truzhdeniye RG15 V1165 F5404660 T-15532 B-14198
Ubezhdeniye RG15 V1166 F5404686 T-15533 B-14198
Verigin RG15 V1166 F5412427 T-15533 B-14199
Vernoye RG15 V1165 F5404668 T-15533 B-14198
Voskreseniye RG15 V1167 F5412469 T-15534 B-14200
Vossianiye RG15 V1166 F5412425 T-15533 B-14199
Vozvysheniye RG15 V1166 F5404684 T-15533 B-14198

Good Spirit Lake Annex

Village Dept. of Interior File LAC Microfilm BCA Microfilm
Blagosklonnoye RG15 V1167 F5412479 T-15534 B-14200
Kalmakovo RG15 V1165 F5404646 T-15532 B-14198
Kirilovka RG15 V1165 F5404666 T-15533 B-14198
Novo-Goreloye RG15 V1165 F5404650 T-15532 B-14198
Novo-Troitskoye RG15 V1168 F5412501 T-15535 B-14200
Moiseyevo RG15 V1165 F5404642 T-15532 B-14197
Staro-Goreloye RG15 V1165 F5404652 T-15532 B-14198
Utesheniye RG15 V1167 F5412451 T-15534 B-14199

Saskatchewan Colony

Village Dept. of Interior File LAC Microfilm BCA Microfilm
Bogdanovka RG15 V1165 F5404664 T-15533 B-14198
Bolshaya Gorelovka RG15 V1167 F5412487 T-15534 B-14200
Kirilovka RG15 V1167 F5412463 T-15534 B-14200
Malaya Gorelovka RG15 V1165 F5404648 T-15532 B-14198
Petrovka RG15 V1164 F5391335 T-15532 B-14197
Pokrovka RG15 V1166 F5404690 T-15533 B-14199
Poziraevka RG15 V1166 F5404692 T-15533 B-14199
Slavyanka RG15 V1167 F5412495 T-15535 B-14200
Spasovka RG15 V1166 F5412429 T-15533 B-14199
Tambovka RG15 V1166 F5412433 T-15533 B-14199
Terpeniye RG15 V1166 F5412441 T-15534 B-14199
Troitskoye RG15 V1166 F5412445 T-15534 B-14199
Uspeniye RG15 V1168 F5412499 T-15535 B-14200

Notes

For a description of the 1905, 1911 and 1918 Doukhobor village census, including its historical background, content, usefulness and reliability, availability and published indexes, see the Guide to Doukhobor Census Records.

This article was reproduced by permission in the Bulletin Vol. 40 No. 1 (Regina: Saskatchewan Genealogical Society, March 2009).

Index of Doukhobor Settlements in the 1921 Canada Census

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

The following geographic finding aid may be used to locate Doukhobors in the 1921 Canada Census. Search by province, district, sub-district and page number to find a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor settlements (villages, work camps, homesteads, households, etc.). Then consult the Library and Archives Canada online images and microfilm copies (once available) of the original census to find specific Doukhobor entries. ***Note: This index is a work in progress. It currently contains Doukhobor entries for the provinces of Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia only; Doukhobor entries for the province of Saskatchewan will be added soon.

Index – Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta –   British Columbia

 

Manitoba

District No. and Name Sub-District No. and Description City, Town, Village, Township Doukhobor Entries Pages Microfilm
26 Brandon 8   Townships 11-12, Range 19, west of Principal Meridian. Independent Doukhobor homesteads. 11. N/A
26 Brandon 13   Townships 9-11, whole or fractional, Range 22, west of Principal Meridian lying south of the Assiniboine River. Independent Doukhobor homestead. 6. N/A
26 Brandon 34 Brandon Brandon City, all that part lying south of the centre line of Victoria Avenue and east of the centre line of Fifth Street. Independent Doukhobor households. 17. N/A
26 Brandon 35 Brandon Brandon City, that portion lying south of the centre line of Victoria Avenue and between the centre line of Fifth and Tenth Streets. Independent Doukhobor households. 11-12, 19, 22, 30. N/A
26 Brandon 37 Brandon Brandon City, that portion lying south of the centre line of Victoria Avenue and west of the centre line of Sixteenth Street, and north of the centre line of Victoria Avenue and west of the centre line of Eighteenth Street. Independent Doukhobor household. 18. N/A
27 Dauphin 2   Townships 24-25, Range 15 west of Principal Meridian within the Municipality of Ste. Rose Independent Doukhobor homestead. 15. N/A
27 Dauphin 19   Townships 27-28, Ranges 28-29, west of Principal Meridian. Independent Doukhobor homesteads. 18, 23. N/A
32 Nelson 7   Townships 33-34, Ranges 24-28, West of Principal Meridian. Independent Doukhobor homesteads. 5-6, 8. N/A
32 Nelson 8   Townships 33-34, Range 29, West of Principal Meridian, including village of Benito. Independent Doukhobor households and homesteads. 3-5, 9-13, 15-16, 18-20, 23. N/A

Saskatchewan

Work-in-progress.

Alberta 

District No. and Name Sub-District No. and Description City, Town, Village, Township Doukhobor Entries Pages Microfilm
1 Battle River 1   Townships 33-35, Range 1 and Township 35, Range 2, West of 4 Meridian. Independent Doukhobor homesteads. 8, 10. N/A
2 Bow River 13   Townships 17-20, Ranges 21-22 lying east of McGregor Lake and the Canal, West of 4 Meridian. Communal Doukhobor settlement. 3. N/A
7 Lethbridge 12   Townships 4-6, Ranges 13-15, West of 4 Meridian, including village of Skiff. Independent Doukhobor homesteads. 6-7. N/A
8 Macleod 4   Townships 3-6, West of 5 Meridian and East of Provincial Boundary. Independent Doukhobor homestead. 9. N/A
8 Macleod 7   Townships 7-8, Ranges 28-29 and Townships 7-9, Range 30, West of 5 Meridian. Independent Doukhobor homestead; Doukhobor labourers. 2, 10. N/A
8 MacLeod 8   Townships 7-9, Range 1, West of 5 Meridian, including Cowley village. Communal Doukhobor settlements. 4-6. N/A
8 MacLeod 9   Townships 7-9, Range 2, West of 5 Meridian, including Lundbreck village. Communal Doukhobor settlements. 5-8. N/A

British Columbia

District No. and Name

Sub-District No. and Description

City, Town, Village, Township

Doukhobor Entries

Pages

Microfilm

18

Kootenay West

6B

Trail

Columbia Gardens

Independent Doukhobor household.

6.

N/A

18

Kootenay West

9

Trail

Birchbank

Doukhobor labourers.

5.

N/A

Blueberry

Independent Doukhobor household.

6.

Kinnaird

Independent Doukhobor household.

7.

18

Kootenay West

10

Trail

Brilliant

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Blagodatnoye, Lugovoye, Utesheniye (Ootischenia).

1-30.

N/A

City of Trail

Communal Doukhobor commercial enterprise.

31.

N/A

18

Kootenay West

10A

Trail

Brilliant

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Brilliant.

1-23.

N/A

Crescent Valley

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Krestova.

24-30.

Glade

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Plodorodnoye.

30-42.

Shoreacres

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Prekrasnoye.

42-44.

Taghum

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Dorogotsennoye.

44.

Quory

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Skalistoye.

44-45.

Koch’s

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Kov.

45-46.

Winlaw

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Veseloye, Kirpichnoye.

47-49.

Perrys

Communal Doukhobor settlement of Persikovoye.

49.

Porto Rico

Communal Doukhobor logging camp.

50.

Rossland

Communal Doukhobor farm.

51-52.

Nelson City

Communal Doukhobor commercial enterprise.

53.

18

Kootenay West

11

Trail

South Slocan

Independent Doukhobor households.

9-10.

N/A

Shoreacres

Independent Doukhobor households.

11-12.

Tarrys

Independent Doukhobor households.

12-13.

Thrums

Independent Doukhobor households.

13-15.

18

Kootenay West

13B

Trail

Shields

Doukhobor labourer.

11.

N/A

18

Kootenay West

21

Nelson City

Nelson City

Independent Doukhobor households.

6-7.

N/A

18

Kootenay West

23

Nelson City

Nelson City

Doukhobor labourer.

11.

N/A

18

Kootenay West

25

Trail City

Trail City

Doukhobor labourers.

3, 14, 18, 23, 32, 33.

N/A

25

Yale

48

Grand Forks

Grand Forks City

Independent Doukhobor households.

2, 29-30.

N/A

25

Yale

49

Grand Forks

Cascade

Independent Doukhobor households.

6-7.

N/A

25

Yale

50

Grand Forks

Deep Creek

Doukhobor labourer.

6.

N/A

25

Yale

51

Grand Forks

Paulson

Doukhobor labourers.

1.

N/A

25

Yale

52

Grand Forks

Carson

Communal Doukhobor settlements of Fruktova, Ubezhishche, Khristovoye.

1-13, 15-25.

N/A

Notes

This finding aid may be used to locate Doukhobor census enumerations both in the original census records and in census transcriptions as they become available. Currently the census is only available through a paid subscription to Ancestry.com. For a description of the 1921 Canada Census, including its historical background, content, usefulness and reliability, availability and published indices, see the Guide to Doukhobor Census Records. If you have any additional information or clarifications with respect to Doukhobor entries in the 1921 Canada Census, please contact Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

Frequency of Doukhobor Names in Saskatchewan in 1905

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

A study of the frequency of names offers important insights into Doukhobor genealogy, history and culture.  The frequency of a name is the number of times it occurs relative to the total name instances sampled.  This study presents data on the frequency of men’s names, women’s names and surnames found among the Doukhobors in Saskatchewan in 1905.  The study shows the popularity and variety of personal names at this time.  It also shows the absolute and relative size of families bearing a particular surname.  Overall, this study allows us to form a detailed and accurate understanding of the use of names by Doukhobors shortly after their arrival in Canada from Russia.  Compiled by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

Source

The names for this frequency study were taken from the Doukhobor village census of 1905.  The census was taken by the Dominion Land Branch of the Department of Interior to identify eligible homestead entrants among the Doukhobors living in Saskatchewan.  It contains a substantial amount of information, including the personal names and surnames of 9,188 Doukhobors living in 69 village settlements.  As the number of Doukhobors living out of such village settlements, either in commercial towns, on homesteads or out-of-province, was extremely low at this time (estimated 25 persons or 0.27 percent of the entire population), the census can be considered comprehensive and representative of virtually all Doukhobors (estimated 99.73 percent) living in Canada at the time.

Methodology

A systematic study of the census was undertaken to identify duplicate entries for persons.  None were detected, which is not surprising, given the purpose for which the census was taken.  Although the census was also taken for years subsequent to 1905, only the 1905 entries were analyzed, so as to avoid the potential for double-counts.  A name count was then conducted using computer software and a digital copy of the census to determine the frequency of the names contained therein.  Once counted, the names were deleted to further avoid the potential for double-counts.

Many names in the census are listed in a variety of spellings.  This does not reflect different usage of names but rather the language barrier between English-speaking census takers and the Russian-speaking Doukhobors, the lack of a standard transliteration system from the Cyrillic to Latin alphabet, and varying degrees of illiteracy amongst the Doukhobors as well as census-takers.  As a result, the names in the census are spelt phonetically the way they sounded.  For the purpose of this study, all variant spellings of a single name were counted together.  For example, the men’s names Wasil, Wasyl and Wasily were counted together and likewise the surnames Voikin, Woikin and Woykin.

Similarly, many personal names (but not surnames) in the census are listed in a variety of forms.  In some cases (292 persons or 3.1 percent of the entire population), the diminutive form of a standard Russian name is used, as was the common practice among the Doukhobors.  For example, the men’s name Dmitry also appears as Mitro and the women’s name Praskovia as Paranya.  In other cases (250 persons or 2.7 percent of the entire population), an Anglicized form of the standard Russian name is used.  Hence, the men’s name Mikhailo also appears as Michael and the women’s name Pelagea as Polly.  For the purpose of this study, all variant forms of a single name were counted together.

The above methodology and approach were used to overcome the challenge of analyzing large datasets, to ensure consistency, and to minimize the opportunity for manual errors in calculation.  It has also provided a more effective method for sharing data and results.

Men’s Names

The study identified a total of 72 Russian names distributed among 4,658 Doukhobor males, an average of 1 name for every 65 males.  In contrast, there were approximately 1,500 men’s names in use in Russia at the time.  From this it can be concluded that the pool from which men’s names were drawn by Doukhobors in Saskatchewan in 1905 was relatively small.

Within the pool of men’s names, a small number of names was very popular, while the greater number of names was chosen only rarely.  Therefore, it was very common for different Doukhobor males in 1905 to share the same name.

Table 1  Frequency of Men’s Names
Frequency of Men's Names

As may be seen from Table 1 above, the 10 most popular men’s names were shared by 81.86 percent (3,813 individuals) of all Doukhobor males, while more than 1 in every 2 males (55.86 percent or 2,602 individuals) bore one of the top 5 names.  In contrast, the 62 less popular men’s names, while comprising 86.11 percent of the entire pool of names, accounted for only 18.14 percent (845 individuals) of all Doukhobor males.  Of these, 38 names appear less than 10 times and 16 names appear only once

View a frequency listing of men’s names that appear in the census.  For illustrative purposes, the ten most frequent entries in the listing are reproduced in Table 2 below.

Table 2  Ten Most Frequent Men’s Names

Name

Frequency (#)

Frequency (%)

Rank

Vasily

740

15.89%

1

Ivan

641

13.76%

2

Nikolai

443

9.51%

3

Petro

417

8.95%

4

Alexei

361

7.75%

5

Fyodor

334

7.17%

6

Mikhailo

298

6.40%

7

Grigory

265

5.69%

8

Semyon

219

4.70%

9

Pavel

95

2.04%

10

Women’s Names

The study identified only 39 Russian names distributed among 4,530 Doukhobor females, an average of 1 name for every 116 females.  This can be contrasted with the approximately 1,000 women’s names in use in Russia at the time.  It follows that the pool of women’s names used by Doukhobors in Saskatchewan was very small.  In absolute terms, it was almost half the size of the corresponding pool of men’s names.

Within the pool of women’s names, a remarkably small number of names accounted for the larger part of naming choices.  For this reason, it was very common for different Doukhobor females in 1905 to share the same name; almost twice as common as among Doukhobor males.

Table 3  Frequency of Women’s Names
Frequency of Women's Names

Table 3 above shows that the 10 most common women’s names were shared by 79.67 percent (3,609 individuals) of all Doukhobor females, while more than 1 in 2 females (51.90 percent or 2,351 individuals) bore one of the top 4 names.  By way of contrast, the 29 less popular names, while comprising 74.35 percent of the entire pool of names, account for only 20.33 percent (921 individuals) of all Doukhobor females.  Of these, 11 names appear less than 10 times and 5 names appear only once.

Table 4  Ten Most Frequent Women’s Names

Name

Frequency (#)

Frequency (%)

Rank

Maria

769

16.98%

1

Anna

616

13.60%

2

Anastasia

583

12.87%

3

Pelagea

383

8.45%

4

Avdotia

317

7.00%

5

Agafia

293

6.47%

6

Tatiana

228

5.03%

7

Malanya

167

3.69%

8

Praskovia

127

2.80%

9

Lukeria

126

2.78%

10

Here is a frequency listing of women’s names that appear in the census.  For illustrative purposes, the ten most frequent entries in the listing are reproduced in Table 4 above.

Surnames

Finally, the study identified a total of 235 Russian surnames distributed among 9,188 Doukhobors, an average of 1 surname for every 39 persons.  When contrasted with the approximately 100,000 surnames in use in Russia at the time, it can be concluded that the pool of surnames used by Doukhobors in Saskatchewan was rather small.

Within the pool of surnames, there was an uneven distribution among the population; however, the effect was not pronounced, except at the very top of the frequency listing.  The most striking anomaly was the top surname in the listing, Popoff, which occurred almost three times as frequently as the second most common surname and almost fourteen times as frequently as the average.  Comparatively speaking, however, it was less common for different Doukhobors to share the same surname than personal name.

Table 5  Frequency of Surnames
Frequency of Surnames

As may be seen from Table 5 above, a quarter of all Doukhobors shared 1 of 14 surnames ranked from 1 to 14.  Another quarter shared one of 28 surnames ranked from 15 to 43.  Another shared one of 47 surnames ranked from 44 to 91.  The last quarter of all Doukhobors shared 1 of 143 surnames ranked from 92 to 235.

See the frequency listing of surnames that appear in the census.  For illustrative purposes, the ten most frequent entries in the listing are reproduced in Table 6 below.

Table 6  Ten Most Frequent Surnames

Name

Frequency (#)

Frequency (%)

Rank

Popoff

532

5.79%

1

Chernoff

189

2.06%

2

Strelieff

173

1.88%

3

Konkin

166

1.81%

4

Verigin

165

1.80%

5

Voikin

147

1.60%

6

Postnikoff

145

1.58%

7

Chernenkoff

142

1.55%

8

Kazakoff

130

1.41%

9

Horkoff

121

1.32%

10

Summary

As may be seen from this frequency study, the early twentieth century was not a time of great diversity in Doukhobor naming.  For both men and women, the 10 most frequent names account for about 80 percent of the persons named, and in each case adding the next 6 names brings the total to about 90 percent.  Generally, men’s names were more varied than women’s names, with nearly twice as many names occurring.  In both cases, however, it can be said that there was a great reliance on a relatively small repertoire of popular personal names.

This study identifies a similar trend among surnames, although the effect is not as pronounced as among personal names.  That is to say, the 10 most frequent surnames accounted for about 20 percent of the population, and the 42 most frequent surnames accounted for about 50 percent.  It can be concluded that there was a small number of large families and clans sharing common surnames, and a large number of smaller family units with diverse surnames.

From a genealogical perspective, this study underlines the problem of name ambiguity among the Doukhobors.  For example, a search for the men’s name Vasily comes up with 740 different persons sharing this name, while a search for the surname Popov shows 523 individuals with this surname.  When this personal name and surname are combined, a search identifies no less than 39 individuals sharing the name Vasily Popov.  Such ambiguity hinders the identification of specific persons in records and can potentially lead to confusion in family historical research.

Historically speaking, this study depicts names and naming patterns among Doukhobors for the year 1905.  However, it should be considered as indicative and not definitive of naming trends today.  The rate of growth in size differed among families over time.  As well, post-1905 Doukhobor immigration, while not substantial, nevertheless altered the population size and relative frequency of some names, and brought new names from Russia which did not previously occur in Canada.  Finally, new names (especially personal names) appeared among the Doukhobors after 1905 which did not occur previously either in Russia or Canada.

From a cultural perspective, the small pool of personal names and surnames may be explained, at least in part, by the small founding population of Doukhobors at the end of the eighteenth century; the Doukhobor practice of name repetition from generation to generation; and the geocultural isolation of the Doukhobors, from the late eighteenth century onwards, from external Russian naming influences.  Within these pools, the trend towards uniformity in names and naming patterns may be reflective of a broader pattern of sectarian development.

References

  • Lapshinoff, Steve, List of Doukhobors Living in Saskatchewan in 1905 (Crescent Valley: self-published, 1996).
  • Library and Archives Canada, Immigration Branch, Central Registry Files, Doukhobor Village Files (RG 76, Volumes 183 to 185, Parts 1 to 14) Microfilm Reel Nos. C-7337 to C-7341.
  • Petrovskii, N.A., Slovar Russkikh Lichnikh Imen (Moscow, 1968).
  • Unbegaun, B.O., Russian Surnames (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972).

This article was reproduced by permission in Onomastica Canadiana (Canadian Society for the Study of Names: December 2007, Volume 89, Number 2). Read article in journal format.

Read a distribution study by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff of Doukhobor surnames that appear in the 1905 census and search by surname or search by village.

Frequency of Men’s Names

Frequency of Women’s Names

Frequency of Surnames

Index of Doukhobor Settlements in the 1911 Canada Census

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

The following geographic finding aid may be used to locate Doukhobors in the 1911 Canada Census. Search by province, district, sub-district and page number to find a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor settlements (villages, work camps, homesteads, households, etc.). Then consult the Library and Archives Canada microfilm copies or online images of the original census to find specific Doukhobor entries.

Index – Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta –   British Columbia

 

Manitoba

District No. and Name Sub-District No. and Description Doukhobor Entries Pages Microfilm
15 Brandon 49 Brandon Provincial Polls 1 and 2 City of Brandon; Independent Doukhobor households. 16. T-20340
15 Brandon 53 Brandon Provincial Polls 7 and 8 City of Brandon; Independent Doukhobor households. 20. T-20340
15 Brandon 55 Brandon Provincial Polls 11 and 12 City of Brandon; Independent Doukhobor households; Inmates. 91618192022. T-20340
15 Brandon 56 Brandon Provincial Polls 13 and 14 Completion of Brandon City of Brandon; Independent Doukhobor households. 7. T-20340
16 Dauphin 66 Township 34 in ranges 27, 28, 29 west of the 1st M Village of Benito; Independent Doukhobor households. 10. T-20340
16 Dauphin 67 Township 35 in ranges 27, 28 west of the 1st M Doukhobor work party. 9. T-20340
16 Dauphin 71 Townships 36, 37 in ranges 27, 28 west of the 1st M Town of Swan River; Independent Doukhobor households. 23. T-20340

Saskatchewan

District No. and Name Sub-District No. and Description Doukhobor Entries Pages Microfilm
210 Mackenzie 3 Townships 25, 26 in ranges 2, 3 west of the 2nd M Village of Stornoway; Independent Doukhobor farms. 215. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 9 Townships 27, 28 in ranges 4, 5 west of the 2nd M Village of Ebenezer; Doukhobor work party. 1. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 10 Townships 27, 28 in ranges 2, 3 west of the 2nd M Village of Hamton; Communal Doukhobor farm. 17. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 11 Townships 27, 28 in range 1 west of the 2nd M and townships 27, 28 in ranges 32, 33 west of the 1st M Doukhobor village of Petrovka; Independent Doukhobor farms. 4567891011. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 12 Townships 27, 28 in ranges 30, 31 west of the 1st M Village of Togo; Doukhobor village of Vossianiye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 121314. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 13 Township 29 in ranges 30, 31 west of the 1st M and township 30 in range 31 west of the 1st M Doukhobor villages of Tambovka, Trudolyubovo; Independent Doukhobor farms. 3456781011. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 14 Townships 29, 30 in ranges 32, 33 west of the 1st M, townships 29, 30 in range 1 west of the 2nd M Town of Kamsack, Village of Veregin; Doukhobor villages of Blagodarnoye, Efremovka, Lyubovnoye, Spasovka, Vernoye, Voskreseniye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 12379101112131415161719202122232426272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 15 Townships 29, 30 in ranges 2, 3 west of the 2nd M Doukhobor villages of Sovetnoye, Rodionovka, Terpeniye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 1789101112242526. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 16 Townships 29, 30 in ranges 4, 5 west of the 2nd M Town of Canora; Doukhobor villages of Utesheniye, Goreloye, Blagosklonnoye, Kalmakovo; Independent Doukhobor farms. 2561718192021222324252627. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 17 Townships 29, 30 in ranges 6, 7 west of the 2nd M Independent Doukhobor farms. 161726. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 18 Townships 29, 30 in ranges 8, 9, 10 in the west of the 2nd M Towns of Sheho, Insinger; Communal Doukhobor farms. 7825. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 19 Townships 31, 32, 33 in ranges 7, 8 west of the 2nd M Independent Doukhobor farms. 1718. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 20 Townships 31, 32, 33 in ranges 5, 6 west of the 2nd M Village of Buchanan; Doukhobor villages of Novo-Troitskoe, Moiseyevo; Independent Doukhobor farms. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 21 Townships 31, 32, 33 in range 3 west of the 2nd M Doukhobor villages of Besednoye, Novoye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 123456715. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 22 Townships 31, 32, 33 in ranges 1, 2 west of the 2nd M Doukhobor villages of Kapustino, Nadezhda, Otradnoye, Smireniye, Blagoveshcheniye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 141516171819202122242526272829303133. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 23 Township 33 in ranges 30, 31, 32, 33 west of the 1st M, township 31 in ranges 31, 32 west of the 1st M and township 32 in ranges 31, 32, 33 west of the 1st M Village of Pelly; Doukhobor villages of Tikhomirnoye, Kamenka, Lebedevo; Independent Doukhobor farms. 16151920212223272829. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 24 Townships 34, 35 in ranges 31, 32 west of the 1st M Doukhobor villages of Pavlovo, Perekhodnoye, Arkhangelskoye, Gromovoye, Ozvobozhdeniye, Lyubomirnoye; Khlebodarnoye, Independent Doukhobor farms. 36789101113141516171819202122232425. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 25 Townships 34, 35, 36, 37 in ranges 1, 2 west of the 2nd M Village of Hyas; Independent Doukhobor farms. 6. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 29 Yorkton City of Yorkton; Independent Doukhobor households. 424263335363738394043444546. T-20453
210 Mackenzie 33 Townships 34, 35, 36 in ranges 30, 31 west of the 1st M Doukhobor villages of Uspeniye, Bogomdannoye, Mikhailovo, Pokrovskoye, Semenovka, Vozneseniye; Vera, Troitskoye, Independent Doukhobor farms. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425. T-20453
212 Prince Albert 1 Townships 44, 45 in ranges 30, 31, 32 west of the 1st M and range 1 west of the 2nd M, townships 44, 45 in ranges 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 west of the 2nd M, township 44 in range 11 west of the 2nd M, township 45 in ranges 6, 9, 10 west of the 2nd M, township 46 in range 3 west of the 2nd M and township 43 in ranges 11, 12 west of the 2nd M Doukhobor work party. 2122. T-20455
212 Prince Albert 11 Townships 44, 45 in ranges 5, 6 west of the 3rd M Doukhobor villages of Spasovka, Pozirayevka, Slavyanka Uspeniye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 6789101114. T-20455
212 Prince Albert 12 Townships 44, 45 in ranges 7, 8 west of the 3rd M Doukhobor villages of Troitskoye, Large Gorelovka, Small Gorelovka; Independent Doukhobor farms. 12389101115. T-20455
212 Prince Albert 30 Prince Albert City of Prince Albert; Doukhobor work party. 12. T-20456
212 Prince Albert 31 Prince Albert City of Prince Albert; Doukhobor work party. 21. T-20456
214 Regina 80 Regina Doukhobor workers. 4. T-20458
216 Saskatoon 18 Township 39 in ranges 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 west of the 3rd M Town of Langham; Independent Doukhobor farms. 2622. T-20459
216 Saskatoon 20 Townships 39, 40 in ranges 9, 10 west of the 3rd M Village of Borden; Doukhobor villages of Pokrovka; Independent Doukhobor farms. 1819. T-20459
216 Saskatoon 26 Townships 42, 43, 43a in ranges 1, 2, 3 west of the 3rd Town of Rosthern; Independent Doukhobor farms. 525357. T-20459
216 Saskatoon 28 Townships 42, 43 in ranges 6, 7 west of the 3rd M Doukhobor villages of Petrovka, Terpeniye; Independent Doukhobor farms. 78910131415192021. T-20459
216 Saskatoon 31 Saskatoon Ward 2 City of Saskatoon; Independent Doukhobor households. 966. T-20459
216 Saskatoon 33 Saskatoon Ward 3 City of Saskatoon; Independent Doukhobor households. 343536. T-20459
216 Saskatoon 44 Township 39 in range 8 west of the 3rd M Doukhobor villages of Bogdanovka, Kirilovka; Independent Doukhobor farms. 1234. T-20459

Alberta 

District No. and Name Sub-District No. and Description Doukhobor Entries Pages Microfilm
4 Medicine Hat 32 Townships 11, 12, 13, 14 in ranges 9, 10, 11, 12 west of the 4th M Town of Suffield; Doukhobor work party. 7. T-20329
4 Medicine Hat 35 Townships 15, 16, 17, 18 in ranges 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 west of the 4th M Town of Carlstadt; Doukhobor work party. 1920. T-20329
4 Medicine Hat 40 Townships 18, 19 in ranges 19, 20, 21, 22 west of the 4th M Town of Milo; Doukhobor work party. 141516. T-20329

British Columbia

District No. and Name Sub-District No. and Description Doukhobor Entries

Pages

Microfilm

9 Kootenay 35 Ymir Riding Villages of Thrums, Tarrys, Independent Doukhobor farms; Brilliant Communal Doukhobor villages. 231011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738. T-20334
9 Kootenay 39 Nelson City of Nelson; Doukhobor work party. 3940. T-20334
9 Kootenay 53 Grand Forks Riding City of Grand Forks; Doukhobor work party. 5. T-20334
9 Kootenay 54 Grand Forks Riding West Grand Forks; Fruktova Communal Doukhobor villages. 1011121314151617181920. T-20334
9 Kootenay 55 Grand Forks City of Grand Forks; Doukhobor work party. 7. T-20334
9 Kootenay 56 Grand Forks Riding City of Grand Forks; Doukhobor work party. 1. T-20334

Notes

This finding aid may be used to locate Doukhobor census enumerations both in the original census records and in census transcriptions such as those provided online by Ancestry.com or Automated Genealogy. For a description of the 1911 Canada Census, including its historical background, content, usefulness and reliability, availability and published indices, see the Guide to Doukhobor Census Records.

This article was reproduced by permission in the Bulletin Vol. 40 No. 2 (Regina: Saskatchewan Genealogical Society, June 2009).