Doukhobors in the Kootenay, 1909

In June 1909, an unidentified correspondent with the Rossland Miner newspaper visited the new 2,700-acre Doukhobor colony at Waterloo (Dolina Utesheniya) at the confluence of the Columbia and Kootenay rivers in British Columbia. Only a year after its establishment, the colony already boasted 675 members, recent arrivals from the Prairies, who had cleared 350 acres of heavy forest and planted 10,700 fruit trees along with large vegetable gardens. They set up two sawmills, which were busy cutting lumber for the houses of the different villages to be located on the land, and a preliminary irrigation system was established. Greatly impressed with their untiring industry and deep optimism of further development, the correspondent writes about their history, religious beliefs, communal society, vegetarianism, gender equality, dress and overall generosity and courtesy. Reproduced from the Daily News Advertiser (Vancouver BC), June 23, 1909

Last week a representative of the Rossland “Miner” visited the new colony of Doukhobors at Waterloo, B.C., and writes his impressions as follows.

Imagine a community of nearly 700 men, women and children, without a doctor, a lawyer, a dentist, a druggist, store, saloon, butcher shop, gaol or police officer, pauper or courtesan, where all of the population are vegetarians and teetotalers, so far as alcoholic beverages are concerned, and who neither chew nor smoke tobacco, and you will have an idea of the Doukhobor settlement at Brilliant, formerly Waterloo, on the Columbia River, about 25 miles from this city.

The inhabitants are Socialists, pure and simple, as everything is held in common. The men and the women work for the community, and all property is owned by the community, and all moneys derived from the sale of the products of the soil go into a common fund. They constitute one big family. The children, until they are able to work, are allowed to play or attend school, where a rudimentary education is given them. As soon as they are strong enough to toil they join the ranks of the workers and become part of the producers.

There are no drones in this human hives. When old age comes on and the limbs become unfit for arduous toil, the superannuated Doukhobors are treated just the same as when they were useful to the community. One of the Doukhobors explained this to the “Miner” representative, about as follows: “Old men and old women, when breakfast comes, eat breakfast; when dinner comes, have dinner; when supper comes, have supper. Rest of time they sit in house if weather is bad, but if weather fine they go in the sun and enjoy themselves. When they want shoes, hat, coat, vest, they go to the shop and get them.”

The former Waterloo mining and lumber camp (est. 1896) where the Doukhobors first settled in 1908. The two-story building at the left was used as the Brilliant Post Office and branch office of the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood, with the John W. Sherbinin family living upstairs. The two-story whitewashed log building to the right was used as a communal kitchen and cafeteria. The two-story building to its right served as the community store-house for the receipt and distribution of goods and supplies. Doukhobor Commission Photographs, BC Archives File GR-0793.5.

Elementary School

Questioned as to the school, the Doukhobors stated that as the schools were provided for the children, where they learned to read, write and figure; in other words, they are given a primary education. The desire is not to over educate them. They do not want them to become doctors, lawyers, school masters, or scholars, but tillers of the soil, like their fathers and mothers.

Another feature of the Doukhobors is that they are opposed to war and will take no hand, act or part in it. In Russia, where they come from, they were knouted for refusing to serve in the army, but preferred death under the cruel knout to taking part in slaying their fellow men. One of the cardinal parts of their creed is that they are opposed to the shedding of the blood of anything that lives, and hence they are vegetarians, drawing the line even at fish. They have been called by some “Russian Quakers.”

Doukhobor Religion

As to their religion, it was explained to the “Miner” representative as follows:

They follow as closely as possible the teachings of Christ in doing only that which is good to their fellow man, and of not resenting violence when it is offered against their persons or property. When one cheek is smitten they turn the other to the smiter. They lead clean, honest lives, wronging neither man nor dumb creates and make their living by the sweat of their brow, directly from the soil.

Should a member of the community desire at any time to leave, he gives notice of his wish and his or her share is apportioned and he or she is given it in the form of money. Should he or she afterwards regret their action and desire to return they can repurchase their interest and again become members of the community.

Doukhobor leader Peter V. Verigin’s older brothers Prokofy and Vasily and family at Waterloo (Dolina Utesheniya) in c. 1911. A.M. Evalenko, The Message of the Doukhobors (1913).

Women with the Hoe

The women work in the fields the same as the men, doing the light tasks, such as hoeing and planting. It was an interesting sight to see groups of them coming in from the fields at noon and in the evening. Each had a hoe on his shoulder and they laughed and chatted with each other as they made their way to the public dining room, where they dined with their children.

They are usually attired in dark skirts with waists of varied material, generally calico and of different colors, according to the taste of the wearers. Each wears a large apron. The headdress consists of a large handkerchief covering the hair and the sides of the face and tied in a knot at the throat. A portion of the handkerchief falls for a considerable distance down the shoulders. Their feet are covered with rough shoes, and not a few of them were without stockings. Apparently there is not a corset in the community.

A few are comely, others have the “fatal gift of beauty,” while not a few are homely. They are deep chested, wide-hipped, clear eyed and have the red badge of health in their cheeks in most instances. A few of the older ones show the effects of hard toil in stooped shoulders and deeply-marked lines in their faces. They seemed to be cheerful and contented, while their children were veritable pictures of health, vitality and strength, lively and full of pranks. The children were generally barefooted.

One feature that struck the visitor was their universal politeness and kindliness. The men respectfully salute their fellows, whether men or women, whenever they meet, by raising their caps with cheerful words of salutation. The stranger visiting the place is shown the same sort of courtesy, the children being particularly polite.

Strong, Hardy Men

The men nearly all wear a peaked cap and in most instances black coats, all of which are of the same cloth and pattern; dark trousers and heavy shoes. They are manufactured by them at home in most instances. The men are large, strong, athletic and active looking. They are nearly all light complexioned, with blue and gray eyes, although there are a few of the pronounced brunette type with flashing black eyes.

It was noticed that they all were able to read, as when they came to the Post Office they looked over the letters and selected whatever was directed to them.

Peter Verigin is the head man of the colony. He is a fine looking, large man, of commanding appearance. Although he has been in Canada for several years he has not yet learned to speak English. John Sherbinin is his interpreter and is a young man of ability, who speaks English fluently, and from him the following particulars concerning the community were learned:

Doukhobor leader Peter V. Verigin working in his vegetable garden at the Waterloo camp, Dolina Utesheniya, c. 1911. A.M. Evalenko, The Message of the Doukhobors (1913).

Last year the community, after a thorough inspection of the various portions of the Province, on the part of their agent, purchased through Willoughby & Mauer, of Winnipeg, 2,700 acres of land near Waterloo. This included 67 acres belonging to H.B. Landers [sic Landis] and 14 acres owned by James Hartner.

This land extends along the Columbia River’s east bank for a distance of two miles and along the south bank of the Kootenay river for a mile and a half. The land extends from the river front to the foot of the mountains, which rise almost perpendicular at the eastern boundary of the land. The land is beautifully located on three benches. The first bench is 100 feet above the level of the river and a quarter of a mile wide. The second bench is 200 feet above the river and about a mile wide. The third bench is 350 feet above the river and about a quarter of a mile in width. The three benches represent former beds of the Columbia River and the soil is a rich alluvial, being ideal fruit and vegetable land. The valley of the Columbia is wide at this point and the sun has ample opportunity of warming the oil and making “things grow.”

The First Arrivals

On May 12, 1908, the first installment of Doukhobors arrived from the prairies, consisting of 80 men, three women and two children.

Last year a little over 200 acres were cleared and a considerable quantity of vegetables raised, such as potatoes, cucumbers, water melons, citron melons, turnips, radishes, etc., and about 700 fruit trees were planted.

This year, so far, 150 acres have been cleared and 10,700 trees planted, including plums, cherries, prunes, apricots, nectarines, walnuts, chestnuts and almonds. Besides there have been 6,000 grape vines planted on the sunny slopes of the benches. Then there are 18,000 seedling apple, pear and quince trees purchased in Iowa, which will be set out later, they being at present in beds. A very large number of gooseberries, currants and blackberries have been set out, which will produce considerable fruit this year. This season there have been a good sized acreage devoted to potatoes, onions, beets, buckwheat, water melons and other vegetables.

The community has had in operation for a considerable time a portable sawmill that cuts about 5,000 feet of lumber a day. Another and a larger mill has been purchased and is at present at Castlegar on board the cars. This will soon be placed in position and will cut from 30,000 to 40,000 feet a day. It will be used to cut lumber for the houses of the different villages that are to be located on the land of the community. It will not only be used at Waterloo but at Pass Creek, where the community has purchased 2,000 acres of land.

A ferry has been put in at Waterloo, which will carry thirty tons, and a second ferry has been placed in position in the Kootenay River, which is only a little smaller than the one at Waterloo.

Returning to the additions to the colony, Mr. Sherbinin stated that fifteen came in July last from the prairies, consisting of two men, three children and ten women. April of the present year 190 men arrived from the prairies. Within the past few days, 500 arrived at Waterloo, a considerable portion of whom were women. About 150 have gone to near Grand Forks, where the community owns 1,000 acres of land, and some are working for others clearing land. The present population of the Waterloo community is about 675.

Group of early Doukhobor settlers to Waterloo (Dolina Utesheniya), c. 1909. BC Archives A-02072.

Asked as to the future plans of the community, Mr. Sherbinin stated that the intention was to continue the work of clearing, till 2,700 acres at Waterloo was cleared and set out in fruit, thus making it the largest orchard in the Province. A road is being built to Pass Creek, from Waterloo, which with all its winding will be about ten miles in length. If the Province constructed this road it would cost at least $12,000, but the Doukhobors are doing it themselves without asking for a cent from the public coffers. The 2,000 acres that the community owns at Pass Creek will be cleared and part of it used for growing vegetables and the remainder for hay and pasturage.

Asked where the Doukhobors came from, Mr. Sherbinin said that they were from the Caucasian Provinces that lie in Southern Russia between the Black and Caspian Seas, and principally from Tiflis and Kars. They are from the cradle of the Aryan race. The Doukhobor society is three or four hundred years old. They came to Canada first in 1898, because dissatisfied with the adverse conditions in Russia, and particularly the compulsory service required of them in the army, preferring death at the hands of the Cossacks to service in the army. There are about 7,000 of them in Canada at present. In Saskatchewan there are 40 villages each containing from 75 to 350 people. It is the intention to transfer all of these to the Province inside of the next five years.

Asked the reason for the change of residence place the reply was that as the Doukhobors are vegetarians and used to a fairly warm climate, it was too cold for them on the prairies, while the weather here was free from intense cold. On the prairies they cannot raise fruits, vegetables and nuts, which form so large a portion of their diet, but here they can be easily grown, and hence their preference for this section of the country.

First crop of tomatoes grown by Doukhobors at Waterloo (Dolina Utesheniya), 1908. SFU MSC121-DP-152-01.

Vegetarian Menus

The “Miner” representative dined twice with the Doukhobors during his visit, having luncheon and dinner. At luncheon he had a vegetable soup, made of potatoes and fragrant herbs, thickened with milk and butter and seasoned with salt. It was very good. Black bread made of whole wheat, evidently mixed with rye. It was sweet and wholesome. Two fresh eggs; then there was raspberry jam, raisins and plums stewed together, butter and cheese, and water instead of tea. For dinner the menu was as follows: noodle soup, flavored with parsley and seasoned with salt. A slab of cheese; black bread, raspberry jam, two eggs, and water instead of coffee.

From the standpoint of a vegetarian the meals were satisfying, and the “Miner” representative enjoyed them very much. They were given with such kindness and such heartfelt hospitality that added zest to them.

What most impressed the “Miner” representative during his visit was the untiring industry of the members of the community. In a very short time they have cleared, ploughed and made a veritable garden a tract of 350 acres that was last year virgin forest. Not only the stumps and roots have been removed but every stone. The soil has been pulverized to as fine a point as it can be.

Water has been piped to the cultivated land so that trees and vegetables can be irrigated. It is the intention to flume in larger supplies of water from McPhee Creek, so that every acre of the 2,700 can be irrigated.

When the entire tract has been planted it promises to make the largest orchard in the Province. It is understood that most of the fruit raised will be canned or dried for shipment to the larger centres of the Dominion. The task already accomplished is an immense one, but what lies before them in improving the two tracts at Waterloo and Pass Creeks and the one at Grand Forks is much larger. Besides they intend to acquire other areas of raw land which they will improve. What they have done already is an object lesson of great value, as it shows what the soil of the Columbia River Valley is capable of yielding to property directed and energetic effort.

Doukhobor land-clearing on the First Bench immediately north of the Waterloo camp, 1912. Doukhobor Commission Photographs, BC Archives File GR-0793.5.

To the Socialist of this section a visit to Waterloo will give him a view of Socialism at short range, as his doctrines are fully carried out by the Doukhobors.

The vegetarian will find much to commend when he looks into the diet of the Doukhobors. He will see men and women doing hard work on a vegetable diet.

The temperance advocate should also be interested in what he can see in this community and can study the effects of total abstinence in a community of several hundred.

The lover of peace cannot help but admire the courage which the Doukhobors have displayed in sticking to their anti-war doctrine.

Those who are interested in humanity and how man is working his way to a higher destiny, can find food and reflection in this simple, plain and God-fearing community.

Ootischenia Cemetery Map

Map of
Ootischenia Cemetery
Ootischenia, British Columbia

North

–      –      N.G. Kabatoff William A. Verigin Masha M. Kanigan –    
Alex W. Negreiff Mike Lebedow Anna I Konkin
Walter W. Koftinoff William Baresinkoff Alex J. Kanigan Dora F. Picton Timofey Stoochnoff Polly A. Padmorovs
William Tomilin Lucy A.
Stoochnoff
Polly P. Rowan Walter Kinakin Nicholas H. Kabatoff Edward N. Pictin Michael Kazakoff Malasha G. Abietkoff Heper Sam M. Rezansoff
Alec A. Stoochnoff Paul W. Hadikin Florence Rezansoff William A. Negreiff John N. Konkin William W. Cazakoff Ivan E. Zoobkoff Lookeria M. Popoff George W. Kanigan Vera S. Popoff
Helen Kinakin Dora Drazdoff Emma Zoobkoff Philip Rezansoff William J. Pereversoff John W. Tomilin Saveliy M. Kanigan Annie H. Markin Vasily V. Semenoff Peter J. Wishlow
Peter S. Kinakin Doris Zoobkoff Alex M. Lactin John J. Doubinin Dick M. Zoobkoff Molly Swetlikoff Anne P. Kazakoff Anyta V. Nazaroff
Arlene Dyson Marianne L. Edwards Mary M. Popoff Polly N. Kinakin Lucy Cazakoff Vasil S. Sookeroff Nellie C. Kanigan
John J. Strelaeff William Makeiff Polly W. Harshenin Alex A. Chernoff Sam G. Stoochnoff Annie N. Kabatoff Mary A. Tomilin Doonia A. Hadikin Nastya Maloff
Fred Bonderoff Tina W. Popoff Wiliam M. Popoff Michael N. Popoff Polly N. Radulovich Avdotia Kooftinoff Masha V. Bondareff Evdokimoff Nazaroff
Nellie J. Kinakin Walter A. Koftinow Mary E. Koftinoff Mary N. Lebedoff Annie N. Lactin Fred F. Novokshonoff Evdokim N. Konkin Dan A. Voykin
Peter Kinakin Polly Barisenkoff Marie J. Popoff Gertrude Chernenkoff Masha E. Poznikoff Dmitri D. Popoff Dora Zarikoff Vasiliy I. Kazakoff
William B. Stoochnoff Walter S. Kanigan Peter T. Markin Tina Lavrenov Annie J. Kanigan Vaya I. Tamilin Andew A. Stooshnoff Anyta V. Argatoff Agafia P. Popoff
Bill

Bonderoff

Peter R. Samoyloff Tanya Pereversoff John W. Abietkoff Alex E. Zarchukoff George A. Popoff Mike J. Zoobkoff N.S. Zarikoff
John W. Kanigan Alex D. Voykin Polly M. Markin Mike N. Kabatkoff Ann Hendren George Koftinoff Vasiliy P. Pereversoff
Fred S. Podmoroff Polly F. Zoobkoff Mary J. Markin Mary J. Pereversoff Polly A. Hadikin Mary Rezansoff W.W. Hadikin Masha N. Arishenkoff
John J. Popoff Larion M. Popoff Michael W. & William M. Gleboff Mike M. Zaytsoff Mike S. Pictin Dasha V. Tomilin William Loverenoff Vasily V. Podovinnikoff
Peter Kinakin Nettie Poohachoff  Annie Tomilin George T. Markin Steve A. Kinakin Mary Verigin Koozma Evdokimoff Parania N. Popov Paul  & Tannis Gevatkoff
Mike Abietkoff Nora Tomilin  Mike J. Tomilin Alex W. Hadikin Katie Chernenkoff John A. Popoff Tatiana N. Davidoff Anna S. Popoff Semeon M. Pictin Michael A. Popov
Cyril Grieves Nick P. Kinakin Helen S. Podmeroff Annie Caruso Polly Zoobkoff Mike F. Bonderoff Ivan I. Zoobkoff Katya S. Pictin Mike A. Maloff
Lissa
W. Popoff
John H. Popoff Elsie A. Abietkoff Grace Kinakin Mary W. Kazakoff Dora Wishlow Alexander Ziben William W. Samoyloff Ivan V. Konkin
Daniel J.M.

Popoff

John L. Popoff Leo J. McDonald Mickey Gleboff  William P. Pozdnikoff Peter W. Kinakin Aksinya Stoochnoff Nick Rezansoff Vasiliy Zoobkoff Michael V. Kanigan George G. Gevatkoff
Alma Makortoff Annie J. Makaiff Mike W. Demoskoff Annie Konkin John T. Stoochnoff John J. Nazaroff Winnie T. Gleboff
William S. Pudmoreff John J. Konkin Koozma Elasoff Polly V. Kanigan Annie Elasoff Polly W. Barisenkoff Evdokim R. Kanigan William F. Gleboff
William N. Obedkoff Nicholas F. Obetkoff Fred W. Hadikin Nick A. Chernoff Alexsei Gevatkoff Agafia A. Chernoff Vasiliy E.V. Kanigan
Peter P. Rozinkin Willie W. Popoff  Fred J. Zoobkoff John N. Lactin
John J. Jmayoff Polly W. Semenoff  Mike Zoobkoff Anna M. Popoff Pavel N. Laktin
Martha Chernoff William F. Masloff William N. Chernenkoff Anna N. Popoff
Mike M. Markin Jean Kanigan Anna E. Gevatkoff John S. Androsoff Natasha P. Glebov Grisha S. Gleboff Agafia Pereverzoff Ivan P. Kazakoff
Florence Chernenkoff Peter P. Konkin  Val Popoff Dora M. Nevokshonoff Stenysha Fofonoff
William J. Legebokoff Florence Shlakoff  Fanny W. Zarchukoff Mary L. Kabatoff S.N. Kabatoff Mavra I. Gevatkov P.P. Konkin
Molly Konkin Nellie E. Stoochnoff Tania T. Reibin Lorne Patrick Kalesnikoff Lookeria Koftinoff Masha P. Konkin Tatiana A. Stoochnoff Tania F. Reibin
Mike M. Strelaeff Elizabeth Samoyloff William A. Pereverzoff Stephan N. Panamardov Vasiliy D. Osachoff
Peter D. Pozdnikoff  Peter M. Popoff Helen E. Hadikin Mary Osachoff
Bill Kinakin Annie W. Kinakin Peter P. Reiben
Peter S. Kabatoff Mary A. Voykin Vasilisa E. Obetkoff
Peter M. Hadikin
Olena L. Kootnikoff Natasha Makeiff V.V. Kanigan Vasil F. Makortoff
Vasiliy P. Makeiff Vasiliy V. Rebalkin
Nastasia S. Voykin Polly A. Popoff Nikolai N. Popoff
Alexander N. Hlookoff Fred D. Popoff
Gapka N. Koozin Elizabeth N. Stoochnoff
Marcie Tomilin Harry A. Postnikoff John Kootnikoff John Gevatkoff
M.E. Popoff Helen Rozinkin Fred Nevokshonoff Nick M. Lactin Vera Markin
Lebedoff William W. Verigin Sam Stoochnoff Helen N. Kabatoff Fred F. Hadikin
Vasil P. Stoochnoff Helen Stoochnoff Mary A. Popoff Netta Negreiff Amy Gleboff
Polly Strelaeff Bill K. Harshenin Fred F. Zeboroff Florence M. Osachoff
Paul Strelaeff Polly W. Strelaeff Gordon A. Semenoff Annie Stoochnoff
Nettie Lactin John Barisoff Walter M. Gleboff William P. Konkin
Mary Pozdnikoff Vera Doubinin Nellie Obetkoff
Mike E. Pictin John J. Ziben Pete M. Popoff Mike F. Hadikin Polly J. Popoff
Helen Zeboroff John J. Stoochnoff Mike M. Tomilin Paul S. Popoff

South