Ethnic Diversity Among the Early Doukhobors

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

Pushkin, the 19th century Russian poet once wrote, ‘Turkic blood flows in all Russian veins’. It has also been said, ‘Scratch a Russian and you’ll find a Tatar’. While many present-day Doukhobors may find it difficult to believe, it would appear that not all early Doukhobors were ethnic Russians. As the following commentary by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff suggests, a number of different ethnic groups may have contributed to, and enriched, our Doukhobor heritage.

At its peak, the Russian Empire covered vast expanses of geographic territory and encompassed many different ethnic groups, including Ukrainians, Poles, Cossacks, Finns, Lapps, Lithuanians, Estonians, Mordvinians, Magyars, Turks, Tatars, Meshcheryaks, Bashkirs, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Bulgars, Mongols, Kalmyks, Buriats, Germans, Swedes, Jews and Gypies to name just a few. Throughout history, Russians interbred with all of these ethnic groups. As these ethnic groups assimilated and became citizens of the Russian Empire, they adopted Russian names, dress, religion and language.

Many Doukhobor surnames, formed in the 17th and 18th centuries, reflect the wide ethnic diversity of the Russian Empire: 

  • The Kalmykov surname is derived from kalmyk, the name of a nomadic Mongol tribe. The surname Kasahov is derived from the term kasag, the Old Russian name for the Circassians, a north Caucasian people. The Mordovin surname is derived from mordva, the name of an indigenous tribe of people in Russia.  The Polyakov surname is derived from the term polyak, meaning Pole. The surname Novokshonov is derived from the term novokreschony meaning “newly-baptised” or “newly-converted”. This term was given to those who accepted the Russian Orthodox faith, specifically non-Christians and non-Russians such as Turks, Tatars, Mordvins, etc.

  • Several Doukhobor surnames are formed from terms borrowed from the Turkish language. These include: Argatov, Babaev, Balabanov, Baturin, Bulanov, Chekmarev, Chuchmaev, Chuval’deev, Il’yasov, Kurbatov, Makhortov, Saburlev, Sadkov, Zibarev and others. While these surnames do not necessarily indicate Turkish family origins, they reveal Turkic cultural and linguistic influences at the time of their formation. 

  • Several Doukhobor surnames are formed from Mordvinian personal names.  These include: Kinyakin, Kitaev, Kochatov, Kunavin, Kuchaev and Varakin.

  • A number of Doukhobor surnames are clearly Ukrainian in form or derivation. These include: Arishchenkov (Arishchenko), Atamanenko, Barovsky (Oborovsky), Baturin (Baturinsky), Bokovoy, Bondarev, Borisenkov (Borisenko), Butsky, Cherkashev, Chernov (Chernoy), Chernenkov (Chernenko), Chubenko, Chutsenko, Chutsky, Dimovsky, Dyachenko, Eroshchenko, Gontarenkov (Gontarenko), Khokhlin, Kobzenko, Kolbasov (Kolbasa), Kolesnik, Kovalev, Krikunov (Krikun), Lavrenchenkov (Lavrenchko), Leshchenko, Levadniy, Matveyenko, Miroshnikov, Nagornov (Nagorniy), Petrenko, Pogozhev (Pogozhiy), Planidin (Planida), Plokhov (Plokhiy), Prokopenko, Remez (Remezov), Reznikov, Rudenko, Rybin (Ryban), Rybalkin, Savenkov (Savenko), Savitskov (Savitsky), Sereda, Shtuchnov (Shtuchniy), Skripnichenko, Skripnikov (Skripnik), Sorokin (Soroka), Svetlishnov (Svetlichniy), Tertishnikov, Vanzhov (Vanzha), Vasilenkov (Vasilenko), Yaroshenko, Yashchenkov (Yashchenko), Yarovenko, Zapasnoy, Zheltenkov (Zheltenko), Zubenkov (Zubenko).

  • Several Doukhobor surnames identify Cossack roots: The Kazakov surname is derived from the term kazak, meaning “Cossack”. The Esaulov surname is derived from the term esaul, meaning a Cossack “calvary commander”. The Sotnikov surname is derived from the term sotnik, meaning a Cossack commander of a hundred men.

In the early 1800’s, Doukhobors from across the Russian Empire settled together in Tavria (Tauride) province. Russian archival records confirm that a significant minority of these settlers were of Ukrainian, Cossack and Mordvinian origin: Ukrainians from Ekaterinoslav, Sloboda-Ukraine (Kharkov), Poltava, Kherson and Tavria provinces; Cossacks from Sloboda-Ukraine (Kharkov), the Kuban and the Don; and Mordvins from Tambov and Penza provinces. 

Doukhobor oral tradition supports the view that individuals of non-Russian ethnic origin settled amongst the Doukhobors at Milky Waters, Tavria province. In his book, Toil and Peaceful Life: History of Doukhobors Unmasked, author Semeon F. Reibin recounts how the Verigin family descended from Tatar princes. In his book, Stories from Doukhobor History, folk historian Eli Popoff discusses Doukhobor families of Finnish or Mordvinian ancestry who retained their native language and customs for generations after joining the Doukhobor movement. Popoff also discusses individuals of Mongol ancestry who settled among the Doukhobors. 

After the Doukhobors were exiled to the Caucasus mountain region in the 1840’s, many learned to speak the native Turkic, Georgian, Armenian and Azeri tongues of their mountain neighbours. There is no evidence to suggest the Doukhobors intermarried with the native Caucasian peoples during this period, however they definitely interacted with them on a daily basis.

In the late 1890’s following the “Burning of Arms”, close to 100 Doukhobor military personnel were exiled from the Caucasus to the Yakutsk district of Siberia for refusing to bear arms. A handful of these young men married local women of Siberian (Tagut) ancestry before they rejoined their families in Canada in 1905.

Without a doubt, the vast majority of Doukhobors are of Slavic Russian ethnic origin. However there is no such thing as a “pure-bred” nationality. A number of different ethnic groups may have contributed to, and enriched, our Doukhobor gene-pool. There are many old photographs of dark-complexioned Doukhobors, taken at the turn of the last century, that suggest some of us aren’t as “Russian” as we’d like to believe.

Family Names in British Columbia Doukhobor Settlements, 1930s-1950s

by Mike W. Popoff and Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

In 2001-2002, Mike W. Popoff of Castlegar, under the auspices of the Doukhobor Place NamesProject, conducted extensive fieldwork, interviews to collect information about the family composition of Doukhobor settlements in British Columbia. One of the many results of this groundbreaking oral history project was a listing of families who lived in the former CCUB, surrounding settlements in the Grand Forks, Castlegar and Slocan Valley areas of British Columbia, from the Late Thirties to the Early Fifties. Now available online, this unique historical information, not available in official documents, is a tremendous resource for genealogical, historical research. Maps by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff. Photos courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre.

Area Index Grand ForksCastlegarSlocan Valley

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of settlements.

Grand Forks & Area

(i) Spencer (Ubezhishche) District

Danshin Village
(double dom) Astofooroff, Danshin, Negreiff, Popoff, Zebaroff.

Hlookoff Village
(single dom) Bonderoff, Hlookoff, Kazakoff, Plotnikoff, Semenoff.

Horkoff Village
(single family residences) Babakaeff, Horkoff.

Kalmakoff Village
(single family residences) Davidoff, Hlookoff, Kalmakoff, Negreoff.

Ozeroff Village
(double dom) Demoskoff, Faminoff, Makortoff, Negreoff, Ozeroff.

Zibin Village (Holandia)
(single dom) Cheveldave, Dubaseff, Kazakoff, Semenoff, Verigin, Zibin.

A view of a Doukhobor farm home near Grand Forks, BC, c. 1920.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

(ii) Outlook (Khristovoye) District

Barisenkoff Village (Galeyevka)
(double dom) Barisenkoff, Gritchen, Kootnikoff, Lazaroff, Makortoff, Markin, Pereversoff.

Grisha Makortoff Village
(single family residence) Makortoff.

Koochin Village
(single family residences) Arishenkoff, Koochin, Parakhin, Stoochnoff, Vishloff.

Kurnoff Village (Priplodovka)
(single dom) Barisoff, Kurnoff, Zeboroff.

(single family residences) Elasoff, Nevokshonoff, Semenoff, Tarasoff.

Makortoff Village
(single dom) Makortoff, Zarchikoff, Zibin.

Popoff Village
(single dom) Moojelsky, Popoff.

Semenoff Village
(dom) Demenoff, Semenoff, Zeboreff.

Vanjoff Village (Pomoilovka)
(single dom) Makortoff, Plotnikoff, Polonicoff, Vanjoff, Varabeoff, Wishloff.

Zhikareff Village
(single family residence) Negreoff.

(iii) Fruktova / Sion

Map of Doukhobors Settlements in Grand Forks, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Grand Forks.

Arishenkoff Village
(single dom) Arishenkoff, Khaladinin, Strukoff.

Astafooroff Village
(single family residence) Astafooroff.

Barisoff Village
(single dom) Barisoff, Horkoff, Planidin.

Gritchin Village (Yaponovka)
(double dom) Castrukoff, Evdokimoff, Gritchin, Hlookoff, Popoff.

Hremakin Village
(single dom) Astafooroff, Fedosoff, Hremakin, Plotnikoff.

Lapshinoff Village
(single family residence) Lapshinoff.

Novokshonoff Village (Flour Mill)
(single family residences) Astofooroff, Novokshonoff, Kazakoff, Kootnikoff.

Popoff Village
(single dom) Chernoff, Podmaroff, Popoff.

(single family residences) Koochin, Rezansoff, Savinkoff, Verigin.

Strukoff Village (Kulikovka)
(double dom) Horkoff, Lazaroff, Perepolkin, Planidin, Plotnikoff, Strukoff.

Stushnoff Village
(single dom) Barisoff, Hlookoff, Legebokoff, Malloff, Reibin, Stushnoff.

In addition to the above, there were other Doukhobor families who lived individually in the West
Grand Forks area.

Colony of Doukhobors in Grand Forks, BC, 1930.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

(iv) North Grand Forks District

Bozhiya Dolina (Caesar)
(dom) Makortoff, Plotnikoff, Rezansoff.

(v) South Grand Forks District

Almond Gardens
(single family residences) Abietkoff, Androsoff, Chernoff, Davidoff, Detchkoff, Dowedoff, Esavooloff, Faminoff, Gemaeff, Gleboff, Gretchen, Kabatoff, Kalmikoff, Kastrukoff, Kazakoff, Laktin, Makortoff, Ogloff, Pereversoff, Popoff, Relkoff, Semenoff, Sheloff, Sherstobitoff, Soloveoff, Soobotin, Zarubin.

Nursury (Norsan)
(single family residences) in Arishenkoff, Chernoff, Fofonoff, Lazaroff, Popoff, Swetlishoff.

South Grand Forks
(single family residences) Abietkoff, Androsoff, Chernoff, Davidoff, Detchkoff, Dowedoff, Esavooloff, Faminoff, Gemaeff, Gleboff, Gretchen, Kabatoff, Kalmakoff, Kastrukoff, Kazakoff, Laktin, Makortoff, Ogloff, Pereversoff, Popoff, Relkoff, Semenoff, Sheloff, Sherstobitoff, Soloveoff, Soobotin, Zarubin.

A village in Grand Forks, BC, c. 1920.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

(vi) Grand Forks

(single family residences) Abrosimoff, Anutooshkin, Arishenkoff, Babakaiff, Barisoff, Chernoff, Cheveldave, Chursinoff, Davidoff, Demosky, Dergousoff, Dutoff, Esakin, Evdokimoff, Fofonoff, Horcoff, Hoodicoff, Kabatoff, Jmaeff, Kalmakoff, Kanigan, Kazakoff, Kinakin, Koftinoff, Konkin, Koorbatoff, Kootnikoff, Lactin, Lazaroff, Makaeff, Makonin, Malloff, Medvedoff, Nadain, Negreoff, Ogloff, Pankoff, Papove, Perepolkin, Plotnikoff, Polonicoff, Popoff, Reibin, Repin, Rezansoff, Semenoff, Soobotin, Sookachoff, Sookoroff, Stoochnoff, Straloff, Strukoff, Trofimenkoff, Vatkin, Vereshagin, Verigin, Voikin, Wasilenkoff, Wishlow, Wlasoff, Zibin, Zmaeff.

(vii) Gilpin

(single family residences) Astofooroff, Barisoff, Bayoff, Berukoff, Boolinoff, Braun, Chernoff, Deminoff, Demoskoff, Dubasoff, Dutoff, Evdokimoff, Fedasoff, Gritchin, Hoodikoff, Jmaeff, Kalesnikoff, Kastrukoff, Kazakoff, Kootnikoff, Lapshinoff, Lazaroff, Lebedoff, Markin, Mitin, Novokshonoff, Ogloff, Perepolkin, Pereversoff, Podovilnikoff, Popoff, Savinkoff, Slastukin Stoochnoff, Storgoff, Streloff, Swetlishoff, Tomilin, Verigin, Walasoff, Zibin.

(viii) Midway

(single family residences) Cheveldave, Evdokimoff, Hadikin, Fomenoff, Ogloff, Popoff, Sherbinin, Verigin, Zibin, Zwick.

Castlegar & Area

(ix) Castlegar

(single family residences) Cheveldave, Fomenoff, Horcoff, Keraeff, Koochin, Makaeff, Makortoff, Markin, Moojelsky, Marosoff, Nevokshonoff, Oglow, Poohachoff, Popoff, Plotnikoff, Salikin, Samsonoff, Semenoff, Sopow, Soukarukoff, Voykin, Stoochnoff.

(x) Makarovka

(single family residences) Abetkoff, Androsoff, Poznikoff, Strelaeff.

(xi) Ootischenia

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Ootischenia, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Ootischenia.

Chernenkoff Village
(dom) Chernenkoff, Nazaroff.

Chernoff Village
(dom) Bonderoff, Chernoff, Strelaeff.

Gleboff Village
(dom) Gleboff, Koftinoff, Osachoff, Overnay.

(single family residence) Kabatoff, Verigin.

Gritchin Village
(dom) Gritchin, Jarikoff, Patapoff, Podovilnikoff.

Hadikin Village
(dom) Hadikin.

Kazakoff Village
(double dom) Evin, Kazakoff.

(dom) Kinakin, Kabatoff, Rezansoff, Voykin, Zibin.

Lavrenchenkoff Village
(single family dwelling) Lavrenchenkoff.

Makaeff Village
(dom) Abietkoff, Makaeff, Plotnikoff.

(dom) Argatoff, Konkin, Lactin, Osachoff, Vereshagin, Zoobkoff.

Pereverseff Village
(dom) Nazaroff, Pereverseff, Voykin.

Pereversoff Village
(dom) Babakaeff, Horkoff, Pereversoff, Trubetskoff.

Partial view of a mass Doukhobor gathering at Ootischenia, BC, 1928.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

Pictin Village
(dom) Pictin, Rezansoff, Semenoff, Strelaeff.

Pictin Village
(dom) Barisenkoff, Pictin.

Planidin Village
(dom) Nevokshonoff, Planidin, Popoff.

Podmaroff Village
(dom) Babakaeff, Podmaroff.

Popoff Village
(dom) Davidoff, Gluskoff, Negreoff, Pereversoff, Plaksin, Popoff, Tomilin.

Popoff Village
(dom) Konkin, Kazakoff, Popoff, Sofonoff.

Reibin Village
(dom) Barisenkoff, Kanigan, Reibin.

Reservoir Village (Bolshaya Pilnya)
(dom) Kanigan, Laverenchenkoff, Malloff, Markin, Reibin, Shustoff, Stoochnoff.

Stoochnoff Village
(dom) Elasoff, Gevatkoff, Samoyloff, Stoochnoff.

Waterloo Area
(single family residences) Fomenoff, Harshenin, Kabatoff, Kinakin, Kootnikoff, Popoff.

Zoobkoff Village
(dom) Cheveldave, Kinakin, Koftinoff, Lazaroff, Storgeoff, Zoobkoff.

(xii) Kamennoye

Anutooshkin Village
(dom) Anutooshkin, Kalesnikoff, Labentsoff, Reibin.

Lebedoff Village
(dom) Lebedoff, Osachoff.

Soukeroff Village
(dom) Pozdnikoff, Soukeroff.

A view of the Brilliant orchards, Brilliant BC, 1920.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

(xiii) Ostrov

Maloff Village
(dom) Argatoff, Barisenkoff, Fomenoff, Koftinoff, Lebedoff, Maloff, Postnikoff.

Stupnikoff Village
(dom) Davidoff, Katasonoff, Lebedoff, Malloff, Plotnikoff, Rezansoff, Stupnikoff.

(xiv) Champion Creek (Blagodatnoye) District

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Champion Creek, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Champion Creek.

Village #1
(dom) Filipoff, Kavaloff, Postnikoff, Tymofeivitch.

Village #2
(dom) Fofonoff, Ozeroff, Postnikoff, Popoff.

Village #3
(dom) Kalesnikoff, Zeboroff, Sofonoff, Androsoff.

Village #4
(single family dwellings) Postnikoff, Repin.

Village #5
(single family dwelling) Zeboroff.

(xv) Brilliant

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Brilliant, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Brilliant.

Horkoff Village
(dom) Baturin, Horkoff, Koochin, Plotnikoff.

Konkin Village
(dom) Galick, Kalesnikoff, Konkin, Makaeff, Milosovitch, Nazaroff, Popoff, Rezansoff, Zbitney.

Plotnikoff Village
(dom) Baturin, Nevakshonoff, Plotnikoff, Popoff, Rilkoff, Trofimenkoff, Ziebin.

Harshenin Village (Tambovka)
(double dom) Cheveldave, Harshenin, Plotnikoff, Trofimenkoff, Ziebin.

Trubetskoff Village
(dom) Bloodoff, Hancheroff, Nevokshonoff, Pictin, Popoff, Riebin, Shukin, Trubetskoff.

Wishloff Village (Vozneseniye)
(dom) Cheveldave, Chursinoff, Hrooskin, Kalesnikoff, Makaeff, Negreoff. Single family residences Evin, Kanigan, Makortoff, Popoff, Pozdnikoff, Ziebin.

A sobranie (meeting) at Brilliant BC, 1920.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

(xvi) Sion

Village #1
(dom) Postnikoff, Relkoff, Savinkoff, Semenoff, Verigin.

Village #2
(dom) Chernoff, Makortoff, Pereverseff, Shkuratoff.

(xvii) Raspberry (Malinvoe)

Harshenin Village
(dom) Harshenin, Lebedeff, Makaeff, Markin, Obietkoff.

Relkoff Village
(dom) Makortoff, Relkoff, Sherstobitoff. (single family residence) Hoodicoff.

(xviii) Robson

(single family residences) Andrasoff, Bulinoff, Cheveldave, Evdokimoff, Holuboff, Horcoff, Lazaroff, Makortoff, Markin, Ogloff, Plotnikoff, Salikin, Shukin, Stoochnoff, Verigin, Wanjoff, Zaitsoff, Zibin.

(xix) Thrums/Tarrys District

(single family residences) Abrosimoff, Bayoff, Bullinoff, Demoskoff, Drazdoff, Esavaloff, Harshenin, Hoodicoff, Kabatoff, Konkin, Kalesnikoff, Kinakin, Konkin, Maloff, Markin, Nevokshonoff, Ostofooroff, Perehudoff, Perepolkin, Polonicoff, Popoff,Postnikoff,  Rebalkin, Salikin, Savinkoff, Sherstobitoff, Soukeroff, Swetlishoff, Tarasoff, Verigin.

(xx) Glade (Plodorodnoye) District

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Glade, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Glade.

Glade (Town)
(single family residences) Barabanoff, Chernoff, Kooznetsoff, Lactin, Laukianoff, Lazaroff, Lebedoff, Markin, Perepolkin, Potapoff, Savinkoff, Strukoff, Zibin.

(dom) Denisoff, Larin, Nichvolodoff, Novikoff, Potapoff, Shlakoff, Wasilenkoff.

(dom) Gretchen, Poznikoff, Saprikin.

(dom) Koorbatoff, Makonin, Moojelski, Premarukoff.

(dom) Argatoff, Denisoff, Malakoff, Makonin, Popoff, Pozdnikoff, Sherbinin.

(dom) Gretchen, Koorbatoff, Kooznetsoff, Legebokoff, Planiden, Shlakoff, Verigin.

(dom) Kinakin, Legebokoff, Pozdnikoff, Voykin, Strelaeff.

(dom) Wasilenkoff, Legebokoff, Lactin, Chernenkoff, Gevatkoff.

(dom) Kabatoff, Ogloff, Perepolkin, Samsonoff, Strelaeff.

(dom) Makoni, Markin, Parkin, Perepolkin, Podmaroff, Rozinkin, Saprikin.

(dom) Ozeroff, Popoff.

(dom) Hadikin, Kinakin, Pereversoff, Popoff, Sherstobitoff, Voykin.

(xxi) Shoreacres (Prekrasnoye) District

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Shoreacres, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Shoreacres.

Village #1
(single dom) Chernenkoff, Holuboff, Kalmakoff, Oolashen.

Village #2
(single dom) Kalmakoff, Riebin.

Village #3
(single family residences) Evdokimoff, Makaroff, Phillipoff, Postnikoff, Poznikoff, Skiboff, Sookarukoff, Soukeroff, Stoochnoff, Stupnikoff.

Village #4
(single dom) Barowski, Makortoff, Rezansoff.

Doukhobor home in Shoreacres, BC, 1924.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

Slocan Valley & Area

(xxii) Kartoshnoye (Pass Creek)

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Pass Creek, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Pass Creek.

Pereverseff Village
(dom) Diekoff, Horcoff, Kalesnikoff, Koochin, Pereverseff, Soloveoff, Verigin.

Plotnikoff Village
(dom) Hadikin, Osachoff, Pereverseff, Plotnikoff, Sookochoff, Zaitsoff.

Nichvolodoff Village
(dom) Gorkoff, Makortoff, Nichvolodoff, Soukeroff.

(xxiii) Lugovoye (Pass Creek)

Popoff Village
(dom) Popoff.

Tomilin Village (London)
(dom) Tomilin.

Strelaeff Village (Hollywood)
(dom) Strelaeff.

(xxiv) Krestova

(dom) Barabanoff, Jmaeff, Kinakin, Rezansoff, Rozinkin, Voykin.

Barisoff Village
(dom) Barisoff, Chernenkoff, Gorkoff, Nazaroff, Sherstobitoff, Storgeoff, Voykin.

(dom) Hadikin, Hramakin, Jmaeff, Kinakin, Kurbatoff, Larin, Legebokoff, Markin, Nevokshonoff, Shlakoff.

Krivoi Aul
(dom) Reibin, Stoochnoff, Swetlishoff, Voykin, Zaitsoff.

Village #5
(dom) Antifeiff, Bayoff, Hadikin, Koftinoff, Lactin, Pankoff, Pozdnikoff, Shlakoff.

The Pump
(single family residences) Abietkoff, Babakaeff, Berisoff, Efanoff, Fedosoff, Gevatkoff, Hoolaeff, Kanigan, Malakoff, Malikoff, Markin, Perepolkin, Popoff, Potapoff, Poznikoff, Salikin, Stupnikoff, Swetlisheff, Vereschagin, Verigan, Voykin.

Doukhobor gathering in Shoreacres, BC, 1928.  Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.

(xxv) Crescent Valley

(single family residences) Bidinoff, Chernenkoff, Chernoff, Konkin, Legebokoff, Rilkoff, Saprikin, Savinkoff, Sherbinin, Soobotine, Sopow, Stoochnoff, Tarasoff, Vereshine, Verigin, Woykin.

(xxvi) Goose Creek

(single family residences) Abrosimoff, Chernenkoff, Gritchen, Hlookoff, Kazlov, Koodrin, Legebokoff, Makortoff, Nazaroff, Planidin, Postnikoff, Reibin, Repin, Shlakoff, Sookaveiff, Stoochnoff, Swetlishoff, Voykin.

(xxvii) Slocan Park

(single family residences) Cheveldave, Demoskoff, Evin, Konkin, Lactin, Markin, Markoff, Osachoff, Padowinikoff, Planidin, Plotnikoff, Podovilnikoff, Poohachoff,  Popoff, Saprikin, Sheloff, Shkuratoff, Verigin, Zaitsoff.

(xxviii) Koch Siding (Kov)

(single family residences) Chursinoff, Planidin, Rezansoff, Samorodin, Samsonoff, Voykin, Wishlow.

(xxix) Passmore & Vallican Districts

(single family residences) Bayoff, Bloodoff, Gevatkoff, Hadikin, Kinakin, Kootnikoff, Osachoff, Voykin.

(xxx) Lebahdo District

(single family residence) Osachoff, Pictin, Shukin.

(single family residence) Perepolkin.

(xxxi) Winlaw/Appledale District

Map of Doukhobor Settlements in Winlaw, British Columbia

Click thumbnail to view larger map of Winlaw.

(single family residences) Arekhoff, Babakaeff, Berekoff, Bojey, Chernenkoff, Chernoff, Chigmoroff, Chutskoff, Evdokimoff, Faminoff, Filipoff, Gretchen, Jmaeff, Kabatoff, Kalesnikoff, Kalmakoff, Katasonoff, Katelnikoff, Kazakoff, Koozen, Kooznetsoff, Lactin, Lawrenow, Malakoff, Markin, Makortoff, Minnaert, Ozeroff, Pereversoff, Poohachoff, Popoff, Posnikoff, Postnikoff, Poznikoff, Relkoff, Repin, Savinkoff, Shkuratoff, Solovyanoff, Soukeroff, Stoochnoff, Strelieff, Sysoev, Terekoff, Vereshchagin, Verigin, Wishloff.

Kirpichnoye (Claybrick)
(dom) Bulinoff, Fominoff, Goolaeff, Jmaeff, Kabatoff, Malakoff, Stoochnoff, Zarchikoff.

(xxxii) Perry Siding District

(dom) Babakaeff, Evdokimoff, Harasemow, Kabatoff, Kanigan, Koochin, Malakoff, Popoff, Rebalkin, Stoopnikoff, Vanjoff, Verigin, Zarchikoff.

(xxxiii) Hills

(single family residences) Chernoff, Deakoff, Doubosoff, Lactin, Legebokoff, Malakoff, Makortoff, Markin, Perepolkin, Popoff, Posnikoff, Poznikoff, Reibin, Saprikin, Soobotin, Stoochnoff, Vanin, Zaitsoff, Zeibin.

(xxxiv) South Slocan/Beasley

(single family residences) Konkin, Kootnikoff, Markin, Nazaroff, Nimanikin, Pictin, Swetlikoff.

(xxxv) Taghum/Blewitt

(single family residences) Antifaeff, Chernenkoff, Hadikin, Horcoff, Kanigan, Khadikin, Makasoff, Moojelski, Parkin, Planidin, Popoff, Relkoff, Saprikin, Soloveoff, Strukoff, Samorodin, Saviskoff, Shukin, Swetlikoff, Verigin, Zoobkoff.

(xxxvi) Nelson

(single family residences) Baranoff, Berukoff, Chernenkoff, Chernoff, Gorkoff, Hoobanaff, Jmaeff, Juriloff, Kabatoff, Kanigan, Katasonoff, Katelnikoff, Kazakoff, Kinakin, Kootnikoff, Markin, Negreoff, Olisoff, Planidin, Popoff, Postnikoff, Reibin, Relkoff, Rozinkin, Saprikin, Seminoff, Sheloff, Shukin, Sofonoff, Sookarukoff, Soukeroff, Verishine, Voykin, Woikin, Zarikoff, Zeibin.

(xxxvii) Salmo

(single family residences) Antifaeff, Berukoff, Bartsoff, Baturin, Bonderoff, Chernenkoff, Chernoff, Deikoff, Efanoff, Elasoff, Famenoff, Gleboff, Gretchen, Hadikin, Jmaeff, Kalmakoff, Kinakin, Konkin, Koochin, Krasnikoff, Laktin, Makaeff, Maloff, Malakoff, Markin, Osachoff, Padmaroff, Planidin, Pictin, Polonicoff, Poogachoff, Postnikoff, Potapoff, Poznikoff, Rapau, Repin, Rozinkin, Sheloff, Shustoff, Soukeroff, Stoochnoff, Taranoff, Terekoff, Tomilin, Vereshagin, Verigin, Voykin, Zarchikoff, Zeebin.

(xxxviii) Fruitvale/Trail

(single family residences) Antifaeff, Berekoff, Chernenkoff, Filipoff, Gevatkoff, Konken, Makeiff, Markin, Popoff, Sherstobitoff, Vereschagin, Zaetsoff.

(xxxix) Creston

(single family residences) Bludoff, Bonderoff, Chernoff, Ewashin, Famlin, Fofonoff, Hoodekoff, Hrooskin, Konkin, Morozoff, Negreoff, Nemanishen, Ogloff, Osachoff, Pereversoff, Plotnikoff, Popoff, Pozdnikoff, Rilcoff, Salikin, Sherstobitoff, Shukin, Vanjoff, Verigin, Wishlow, Zarchikoff, Ziabin.

Doukhobors sort fruit in packing house, 1925. Courtesy the Doukhobor Discovery Centre Autochrome Exhibit.


This article would not have been possible without the tremendous assistance of many Doukhobors in the Grand Forks, Castlegar and Slocan Valley areas including: Alex Ewashin, Creston BC; Andrew Pereversoff, Shoreacres, BC; Andy Tarasoff, Crescent Valley BC; Bill Strelaeff, Pass Creek BC; Bill Trubetskoff, Brilliant BC; Cecil Plotnikoff, Grand Forks BC; John Nevokshonoff, Grand Forks BC; John Ozeroff, Glade BC; Laura Savinkoff, Grand Forks BC; Mike S. Zibin, Grand Forks BC; Nick Bonderoff, Salmo BC; Pete Elasoff, Krestova, BC; Sam Shlakoff, Krestova BC.  Additional information by: Lawrna Myers, Vernon, BC; Corinne Postnikoff, Castlegar, BC; Molly Minnaert, Winlaw, BC; Peter P. Zaetsoff, Castlegar, BC; and others.

The information contained in this article is based on oral history compiled through extensive fieldwork and interviews carried out by the above individuals.  It preserves a unique historical account of the family composition of Doukhobor settlements in British Columbia, not available in official documents.  Nonetheless, to the extent that the information reflects personal interpretations and recollections of events, it may contain inadvertent errors or omissions.  If readers have any comments, corrections or additions with respect to the Family Names in the British Columbia Doukhobor Settlements, please contact Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

For a distribution listing of surnames that appear in the Saskatchewan Doukhobor settlements in the 1905 census, follow this link

This article was reproduced by permission in ISKRA Nos.1997-1999 (Grand Forks: Union of Spiritual Communities in Christ, 2007).